so, how correctly to behave during a pandemic? Advice to readers “RG” gave a member of the Expert group of the Central Bank on financial literacy, author of 11 books, financial Advisor Natalia Smirnova.

If you lost your job, stand on the register as unemployed to get prescribed unemployment benefits. Now it is 19.5 thousand rubles in a month. Parallel to the search for earnings. It is clear that to find a job in your profession will be difficult, especially if it is impossible to do remotely. But it can be made out, at least temporarily, to the delivery service/remote call center where you had earnings clearly above 19.5 thousand rubles a month to survive during a pandemic, and then go to work in the profession. If revenues have fallen, but you are unemployed, then – if you allow your employment contract – you can also get a part time job.

If you have loans, with a significant drop in income (30 percent or more compared to the average income level in 2019), you may apply for vacation credit up to 6 months. During this period you will not be able to repay the main loan and the interest (although interest will continue to accrue and you will repay at the end of the vacation in accordance with the new schedule). But in 6 months you will be able to stabilise the situation and prevent delinquency.

If a lot of debt and you realize that it is not to pay, even if you sell the property and use all the savings that is another way to apply for bankruptcy. If the debt is from 50 to 700 thousand rubles, you can make an extrajudicial bankruptcy, which is free of charge.

If you are not a stalemate but you are worried about your financial well-being, you should observe the following rules.

first, we must always maintain a “nest egg” for unexpected expenses (to keep it on Deposit with possibility of partial withdrawal and the grace of termination) at least equal to three month’s average expenditure, and better yet, six. To have the same amount just in case you need everything and always, no matter whether you have credits or not and who you work for. This is your insurance if you lose your job, if there are large unexpected expenses, so you don’t have to take out a loan. If this “nest egg”, we must begin to create it, saving at least 10 per cent of income per month. It’s better than nothing.

secondly, it is important to protect yourself from key risks, which can cause large unexpected expenses, and “stash” will not do it. This loss of property, serious illness and/or long-term disability. That’s why you need to arrange insurance – apartments, cars and, of course, life (death due to any cause, disability from dangerous diseases). To insure the property in the amount of at least minimal maintenance, and life – n�� at least the amount of your annual income.

third, if mortgage payments exceed 40 percent of your monthly income and you have savings (in addition to the “stash”), it is better to at least partially repay debts so all payments were within 40 percent of monthly income. It is also necessary at least once a month on the sites and monitor interest rate for loans of the same type as yours. And if rates will be lower your at least 1.5 percent, to refinance their loans, reducing payments on them. The situation is different if the loan repayments for you, not a burden (less than 40 per cent of income per month) and the rates at market level, and at the same time you have a free savings. Then it is possible to prematurely extinguish those debts, the rate of which is so high that it is clearly impossible to kill investment in low and moderate risk (above 12 percent per annum in rubles). If you wager lower then the surplus funds can be invested, but more on that later.

as for the spending, of course, become Plyushkin’s not worth it. But in the crisis period is better before purchase to try to answer the question of whether or not it is for you a necessity. A crisis is a period of instability, it is better to meet with savings, not debt. So major purchases (cars, household appliances, etc.) you should buy now only if it is a vital necessity (for example, the old car broke down, equipment is out of order, etc.). Fear of rising prices makes no sense: if an acute need today not, all will buy in a year when the situation normalizes. Remember 2014, when he bought three TV’s in December, and then they were sold on the websites in January as unnecessary. The money now is the most valuable asset. But if you have a real need to purchase the crisis is a good time for her, because the sellers were willing to discount because of the General drop in demand.

If you have, in addition to the “stash”, has savings, and you want to dispose of them wisely, to choose the right strategy of placing funds will help the answer to the question: are you ready to risk or not? And then choose one of the strategies.

First: absolutely not willing to risk, not willing to earn below the Deposit.

a man may come combination.individuals investment accounts (IMS) type A (with a tax deduction of 13 percent of the invested amount) + FXMM (exchange traded Fund portfolio which is us Treasury bonds).

recall from 2021 for all coupon bonds is taxable at 13 per cent, making them less attractive. If buying bonds in the Fund FXMM, coupon income thereon will not fall under the tax in 13 percent. At the same time, if you do not sell them for the closure of the IMS, and to translate on regular brokerage account, and wait three years of ownership, it is possible to evade tax on the gains of the investment deduction ownership of securities in the Russian market from 3 years. A deduction of IMS according to type And increase the yield of the Fund and will enable the averaged around 11 percent per annum for 3 years, assuming that the average yield of the Fund will be about 6 percent per annum.

Second: are you ready to risk not only the money but not to lose.

This investor can go short structured products 100% capital protection for a term of 3-6 months the growth index or the S&P500 or stock a particular of the largest companies in the American market. Now for such products expected yield is 11-13% per annum in rubles, and the IMS type-A add the yield due to the deduction.

Third: ready to take a risk the opportunity to earn significantly higher contribution.

This investor, I would suggest a maximally diversified portfolio: up to 30 percent invest in exchange-traded funds money market. The situation is now uncertain, in may could be another correction, so I can not advise now to invest the entire amount, part would be left in a money market for future purchases of bonds/shares.

the Second, 30 percent is to invest in exchange traded funds equities American, Russian and Chinese companies, and on all equally.

Another 30 percent can be invested in bond funds (government bonds of the Russian Federation, U.S. Treasury bonds and corporate bonds of the Russian Federation, also to all equally).

And finally, the remaining 10 per cent – if you want an active trade can be directed to speculation, for example, on exchange rate, ruble-dollar, buying gold or shares of individual companies. All the funds to buy better on IMS, to optimize taxes.

But whatever strategy you choose, it is necessary at least once a quarter to analyze and – when a sudden change of the situation to adjust. This will help the specialists of the brokerage companies in which you open your individual investment account.