“Loved the country and the people”
“I feel heavy, also still bitter feelings due to the fact that I thus have to leave the fault of evil humans!..”1. “I’ve lived here 51 years and loved the country and the people. Sorry! But since the Lord had allowed this to happen, I can only bow to His will and try with all humility to accept this,” he recorded it in the diary. For a long time Maria Feodorovna had hoped to help the white side of the allied troops. In a letter to his sister Alexandra on February 19, 1919, she wrote: “I’m Afraid we do not know what the dangers are all countries, if you in the very near future will not provide us with effective assistance in the destruction of the fiend [the Bolsheviks]. After all, it’s a terrible plague, like a plague spreading[Xia] everywhere …they are simply criminals and not elected by the people, as you try to convince yourself”2.
How not to kill the Romanovs. The story of the famous “ducks” Polish journalist
Maria Feodorovna was concerned with the question of the convening of the First world war, the Versailles conference and its forthcoming decision. From a letter to the Empress on February 19, 1919: “With great impatience I expect the outcome of the peace conference – I’m afraid nothing will, because each side has a different view, as in Babel, they would but try to dress, each pursuing only his own gain, and suddenly they decided to leave Russia as it is now, that is split into parts, or the Republic!! It would be indescribably sad and outrageous! No, you can’t believe in this, this is too horrible! In particular, I fear Wilson – President who knows nothing about the situation in the country and probably considers that a Republic is a variant for us, but this Republic, I wish only the Bolsheviks but the trash, stood at the head of the current government. The greatest mistake consists in the fact that they even want to negotiate and especially after they showed who they are going to make a separate peace with Germany”3.
Empress Maria Feodorovna aboard the ship “Marlborough”. 1919 English humiliation
may 8, 1919, through Constantinople and Malta, accompanied by relatives and faithful friends Empress Maria Feodorovna on the English vessel “Lord Nelson” arrived in England. The stay here lasted all summer. For Maria Fyodorovna, it was difficult days. As before, there was no reliable information about the fate of her sons, and although her English relatives (sister, Alexandra, her children and grandchildren, king George (Georgie) and his wife Mei) showed her your location, she in England often felt humiliated and insulted. June 5, 1919, she made the following entry in his diary: “got Up early, stayed with Alix, then came Dolgor the[Ukiyo] and Ligature[ski] and showed me a stupid article in the newspaper where it was reported that a Colonel Wedgwood in the House of Commons asked the question, what does the fact that I’m taking Russian officers. This subject goes beyond all boundaries of propriety – unless he or someone else may be the case before, with whom I meet or what I do. What audacity! One of the present members of Parliament retorted to him. Many applauded than his very sober”4.
In Moscow on Strastnoy Boulevard killed the king
Heavy was for the Empress ‘ presence on the so-called peace Parade on 19 July 1919 at Buckingham Palace. “Ceremonial chestye the Americans began with General Pershing – all the allied forces except ours! The contribution of Russia in the war nobody said”5 – recorded Maria Feodorovna.
on 1 August in the Greek Church held a memorial service for all fallen in war. “The service was beautiful and solemn. But the great grief and sadness I thought about the terrible number of innocent people, who fought together with the allies and gave away in those four years of war their lives! Now, this fact is totally ignored and not give it any value. For them, Russia no longer exists…”6.
Empress Maria Feodorovna (1847-1928), the Danish Princess Dagmar, the wife of Emperor Alexander III. 1920 Photo: Getty Maderaspatana the fate of the son
the Dowager Empress for a long time continued to believe that her son Nikolai and his family “miraculous way” saved. She forbade friends to her people to serve a memorial service for him. When in October 1918 Maria Feodorovna received a letter from his nephew of the Danish king Christian X, in which he expressed condolences on the death of Nicholas II, in reply to the letter the Empress wrote:
“the horrors of my poor beloved Nicky it seems, thank God, are not true. After several weeks of terrible waiting, I believe that he and his family freed and are safe. I can imagine what a sense of gratitude for our Savior has filled my heart!.. Now, when all sides telling me about it, I hope it’s really true. Give it to God”7.
Gleb Botkin and his farewell tale for the Royal family
But not as frequently as she had heard that the Royal family is rescued and is safe under the care of any gStates.
the Investigator N. And. Sokolov, who conducted the case of the execution of the Royal family, insisted on a consultation with the Dowager Empress. It was obvious that he’d like to present Maria Feodorovna evidence, testified that the whole family her son was shot. Maria Fyodorovna, and she wanted to meet the investigator, but did not dare. When it was agreed that the meeting will take place, suddenly came the telegram from her daughter Maria Feodorovna, Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, which stated: “Persuade Sokolov and Bulygina not to come.” It was obvious that such a meeting be too heavy for the Empress. At that time she was already seriously ill and could not speak with the man who was going to tell her the terrible details.
Maria Feodorovna continued to wait for news that one of her sons and grandsons were still alive. She tried to get the latest information from their fellow Danes, who worked with the Bolsheviks in Soviet Russia. Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna (the younger) recalled: “On sons and grandchildren, she said, about living, waiting for news from them. She firmly stood her ground and her faith was passed on to others, who assumed that it had some encouraging testimonies. Came and went, all overgrown with new details, the most fantastic rumors… someone Always knew someone who had seen the letters received notes, speaking with witnesses, and so forth, until finally these fables were not content usual small talk, and nobody took them seriously”8.
Queen Alexandra (1844 – 1925), the widow of a British monarch Edward VII, visited the Royal horticultural society in Chelsea, London. Together with her sister Maria Feodorovna (center). May 1919 Photo: Getty Madecassa daily
after Moving from England to his native Denmark (before he became the Russian Empress, Maria fedaravna was a Danish Princess) in August 1919 without means, Maria Feodorovna had great financial difficulties.
She took numerous visitors and do not remain indifferent to social and political life of the country. She was outraged by the position of the Danish government, which made Soviet diplomats in the country and led them formal negotiations (the Mission of the Russian representative M. M. Litvinov was to establish diplomatic and trade relations between Denmark and Soviet Russia).
reflections of the researcher on the fields of the “Diaries of Emperor Nicholas II”
In a letter to his sister in England, Maria Fyodorovna wrote: “Imagine that scoundrel Litvinov-Finkelstein still here! And since no one is taking any action to send it, I asked the chief of police to come to me to ask him a question why he [Litvinov] allow you to be here so long? He replied that, unfortunately, can not do anything, as Prime Minister, this beast C[ale] forbade the police to monitor his movements and, moreover, gave police the order to shoot Litvinova observation. Never anything similar did not face, because now this man can sow discord and unhappiness and poison the atmosphere here in Denmark, their propaganda, as he pleases, even if he is a protégé of the Prime Minister. Adorable! I immediately told Кристиану9, which somewhat surprised me, because nothing about it from his Ministers did not hear it, apparently, does not understand what a threat is fraught with stay here of a dangerous mind”10.
the Emperor Nicholas II and his family. 1914 Photo: RIA Novoshirokinskoe games
In 1921 in the Bavarian Spa town Reichenhalle held the all-Russian monarchist Congress, which was elected to the Supreme monarchical Council. The Council in August, 1922, addressed to Maria Feodorovna to indicate a person that would be until the restoration of the monarchy in Russia to become a guardian of the throne and head of the monarchist movement. Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), adjutant General V. M. Bezobrazov and N. E. Markov visited Maria Feodorovna, but she, taking them one at a time, chose to evade in order to lead the movement. However, on 19 and 20 November 1922 in Paris a special meeting of the Supreme monarchical Council, in its resolution recognized the Supreme authority of Maria Feodorovna in the monarchical движении11.
the Main contenders for the adoption of the Imperial title was Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich (the younger) and Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich. In 1922, the latter announced the adoption of the Imperial title, September 13, 1924, published a Manifesto “To the Russian people and the Russian army”.
High tragedy Nicholas Jonson, the faithful friend of Mikhail Romanov
Maria Feodorovna reacted to these events negatively. 4 Oct 1924 in a letter to Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich (the younger) she said: “Painfully clenched my heart when I read the Manifesto led[IR] Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, declared himself Emperor of Russia. I’m afraid that this Manifesto will create a schism already, and thus will not improve, but rather worsen the situation of the already-torn Russia… I’m Sure that You, as a senior member of the House of Romanov, the same with me think. Maria”12.
In a letter to his friend Princess A. A. Obolenskaya to Paris 9 Oct 1924 Maria Fedorona wrote: “You have to understand how I was still in awful condition from all the sad events of the past weeks, after the Manifesto issued by the Cyril Vladimirovich. It’s terrible, and what new confusion he sowed in the souls already exhausted! I hope that my response to Nicholas was properly understood. Because for me there is only one answer: I am convinced that my beloved sons are alive, and therefore I can not allow anyone to take their place! All these letters that I receive, are not written in order to calm me down. It is as if I plunged a dagger in the heart. I pray the Lord will help us and show us the true duty of each of us. Kirill wrote to me, asking for my blessing, but he didn’t even wait for my answer, because on the same day, his Manifesto was already printed in all the papers”13.
the Prayer book of Empress Maria, a gift from her mother Queen Louise. Photo: RIA Novosti
Maria Feodorovna died on 13 October 1928 and was buried in Rostelecom Cathedral near Copenhagen. In 2006, her ashes by agreement between the President of Russia Vladimir Putin and Queen Margrethe II of Denmark was taken to Russia and buried in St. Petersburg in the Peter and Paul Cathedral next to the grave of the spouse of Maria Feodorovna, Emperor Alexander III.
Empress Maria Feodorovna – Nicholas II: “for God’s Sake, be steadfast…”
1. Diaries of Empress Maria Fedorovna. 1914-1920, 1923 Under the editorship of Yu. Kudrina. M., 2005. P. 322.
2. Hoover Institution Archives (HIA). Romanov family papers. Box 7. Folder 16.
3. HIA. Romanov family papers. Box 7. Folder 2.
4. Diaries of Empress Maria Fedorovna. P. 349.
5. Ibid. S. 364.
6. Ibid. P. 453.
7. Jensen B. Zarmoder blandt Zarmordere. Enkekejserinde Dagmar og Danemark 1917-1928. Kbhvn, 1967
8. Maria Pavlovna. A memoir. M., 2000. P. 136.
9. Christian X king of Denmark, nephew of Maria Fyodorovna.
10. HIA. Romanov family papers. Box 7. Folder 16.
11. Russian military emigration of the 20’s- 40’s years. Doc. and Mat., vol. 2. Unfulfilled dreams. 1923., S. 366.
12. Voeikov, V. I., a king and no king. Memories of the last Palace commandant of the Emperor Nicholas II. M., 1994. C. 254.
13. Empress Maria Feodorovna, Grand Duchess Ksenia Aleksandrovna, the Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna. Letters (1918-1940) to Princess A. A. Obolenskaya. M., 2013. S. 67.