the Laws of physics for society do not work: two sides with plus and minus signs to each other not that does not stretch, repelled by all means. No one wants to be poor. No one likes “too rich.” Those and others periodically accuse each other who is in the “laziness and dependency”, who “rudeness and greed” and trust and empathy denied.
Psychologist Olga mahovsky told how changing the middle class in Russia
Fighting for the increase of incomes, the state offers a number of reasonable measures. Support small business and entrepreneurial initiatives, targeted approach to the distribution of benefits, increased productivity, flexible credit policies and retraining programs,… From a set of these wonderful letters, it is possible to add the word “paste” only, unfortunately, the modern poor are sweeter until done. People naturally don’t mind to live better and richer. But too often, it turns out, as the hero of an old movie: “I Have the desire but do not have the opportunity.” Earn anywhere, to give their loans is nothing. Not everyone in Russia, in principle, are ready for independent swimming. In the society equally of those who cannot and does not want to do without government assistance, and those who are important “so that it won’t hurt to earn”. Besides, people initially different relationship to the alien or his poverty, wealth, private property, banks, businesses, entrepreneurs, and so on.
Federal Scientists, sociological research center (FNIC) Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Association of Russian banks tried to understand these intricacies. And to understand what has changed in the last 15 years.
First of all, agree on the terms. With regard to Russia “wealth” – a concept veryI / o bus. The fact that Europe average income, many of us feel almost luxury. The study showed FNESC wounds, people consider themselves “upper class”, if one family member accounted for 40.6 thousand rubles per month (this average figure for the country). “The middle -” consider themselves to be people with an income up to 22 800 RUB. per person in the family, poor – to 15 200 RUB). In the more prosperous countries, it is called poverty.
it’s not even the biggest of salaries, and whether people from a difficult situation to escape on their own. In the economic “market realities” of the West – probably Yes. In Russia – probably not. Enumerating the major sources of their income, almost three quarters (71,4%) of citizens called the patch at main place of work, a third (33,2%) – benefits, pensions, alimony, the help of philanthropists or of the state, a quarter – 23,8% – farm or cottage, 16.7% of disposable earnings, 11.3% were financial support from family or friends. Only 7.8 per cent work part-time, 4% – renting an apartment or cottage, 3,9% – run your own business.
“may you live on one salary” – and it’s not the best suggestion. Among these people, by their own estimates, the “rich” only about 1%. It’s mostly managers of large public and private business, senior officials, etc. most of the people living mainly on wages, consider myself middle class (57.7 per cent). True, they often indulge in wishful thinking and have in mind rather their status in society (doctor, teacher, engineer, Manager), not wealth. A third (31%) sign in their own poverty.
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Less than 2 percent of those who are spinning on several jobs, managed to achieve a high standard of living. 65.4% of people believe that such a load has allowed them to break out of the “middle peasants”. Every fifth (19.9%) and part-time did not help, the money is in the family still not enough. The most poor among those living sand the account-money from time to time (41.4 per cent), income from subsidiary farming (42,4%), assistance from relatives (47,4%), pensioners and those receiving allowances or alimony (50,2%). According to surveys, more or less decent people can earn by renting apartments, villas, land or a car or receiving interest on Bank deposits. Among such investor of 6.3% called themselves rich, a third (75%) are wealthy middle peasants. Only 10% of the poor.
The upper class to count themselves among layers of 1.3% of adult citizens of Russia, to the middle layer of 52.3%. Poor called themselves 36%, are unable or unwilling to determine your status is 10.4%. To average people consider themselves 90% of small businesses, three-quarters of the military, customs or tax, slightly more than a third of pensioners, two out of three students and one in five unemployed, 52.6% of rural residents.
the Key words here, of course, “call themselves”. Sometimes people don’t want to admit to pollsters that they barely make ends meet despite all its merits, diplomas and other things. They are ashamed. They don’t want to be losers. Conversely, some deliberately false modesty. Researchers invariably have to make amendments to the psychological factor. And another national feature is that Russia is still a very large informal sector of the economy, it is, according to various estimates, from 20% to 40% of its volume. According to Rosstat, the “shadow” in 2018 was every fifth of Russians of working age (20.1 per cent). This is a whole army of 14.3 million people. It is quite possible that on their “left” income of the respondents prefer to remain silent.
Fist – hold?
“If you’re so smart, why are you so poor? – If you’re so rich, where are you conscience of your business?” Such dialogue is also typical for Russia. Historians and psychologists argue, where we have come from the belief that “poverty is no crime”, and coupled with this cautious attitude to any wealth, dislike of the “rich men”: “From works just not built the stone chambers! From Sumy Yes from prison do not promise!” Whether the Orthodox tradition is very different from a Western Protestant ethic, which considers it a virtue rather hard work for a decent wage than “covetousness”. 70 years of Soviet rule and the constant dispossession were not in vain for several generations. It’s hard to say. Sociologists only record the result: people with different incomes have different views on the causes of poverty and the path to wealth. However, over time society becomes more loyal to the “merchants” and no longer calls on them immediately to “dispossess and plant.” And life is gradually improving. In 2003, 82% of Russians in his entourage had people poor, and only 60% of the rich. In 2015 the poor around us was only 66%, the rich – 56%. The crisis brought down a lot, a relative balance is also. Now in Russia the ratio of 78% to 65% in favour, alas, poor.
Infographics “RG” / Alexandr Chistov / Anna Chetverikova
Why do people in Russia become and remain poor? Among the reasons for this situation their friends the respondents included primarily long-term unemployment (39%), unpaid salaries and pensions (28%), low benefits in public social services (27%). Too often, people addicted to alcohol and drugs (36%), and their illness and disability (34%). 24% believe that poverty are family problems and troubles, as many consider it to be a reason for human laziness and inability to life. About one in five (21%) believes that poverty is a geographical concept, as the whole region lives and you. As many (22%) think that people just don’t want to change their usual way of life. Among other causes of poverty called poor education and low qualifications (17%), lack of support from relatives(16%), poor-parents (13%), large number of dependants in the family (13%), forced migration (4%). And plain bad luck (8%).
during the interviews manifested the classic “fed no one is hungry”. Wealthy people are more often poor believed that the main cause of poverty is the nature and passivity of poor people themselves. Poor mind: to blame external circumstances and “hard life”.
And the main reason for the wealth in Russia is considered a useful and necessary relations (53%) and business acumen (45%). Yes, nobody argues: in order to earn a lot, have “a lot of hard work” (said 40% of respondents), to be able to use the dropped chance (35%), and even to take (30%). Will not prevent start-up capital (27%), a high level of skills and education (23%). Then begins the layer of tar in barrel of honey: that leads to wealth the opportunity to take bribes, said 14% of respondents, dishonesty and dishonesty – 10%, communication in criminal circles – 8%. Affluent people, explaining their success, almost twice as many of their poor fellow citizens mentioned the hard work or highly qualified. And the poor – three times-four times more often attributed to the rich the ability to take bribes, to act dishonestly, to RUB shoulders with crime, etc.
it’s not even the biggest salaries. The question of whether people from a difficult situation to escape on their own
However, if we compare the answers to the question about the causes of poverty or wealth now and 15 years ago, visible change for the better. In 2003, a lot more often (47% vs. 28%) people talked about the non-payment of wages, low benefits and pensions (37% and 27%). Then the failures, many (rightly) blamed macroeconomics. Now have more respect for the personal qualities of the person: “who wants, he will achieve”. Rich is now twice less put the blame of a possible connection with the crime (8% and 16% in 2003), corruption (14% and 21%), dishonesty (10% and 17%). But in General not too fond of. Hurt and offended not so much the difference in wages (in the end, the skills people have are not the same), and first of all that “no justice”, “the rich have their laws.” This especially hitsXia children: their access to education, good medicine, and other benefits almost entirely due to the thickness of the purse of the parents. Humbly accept such a situation is not ready one, of mutual sympathy and tolerance in society, it clearly does not.
More than seventy years the country was hard to believe that a private business is suspicious, private property – definitely bad, and “speculators”, “black marketeer” or, God forgive me, “underground tsehoviki” a bright future is not possible. Milestone changed completely, however, the attitude to the institution of private property in Russia is mixed. In 2005, the majority of respondents (52.4 per cent) spoke about it positively or remain neutral (23.9 percent). Now positively assess only 40.7%, a third (36,3%) – neutral. Opponents of private property has become smaller, but mostly by those who just now find it difficult to answer. People who still remember socialist times, and now live in poverty, “privateers” dislike.
But there are visible changes. It’s been 15 years, and respondents more often began to say that private property contributes to the revival of the people “sense of ownership” (44.2 percent instead of 30.4% in 2005), helps to emerge from the economic crisis (compared to 24.4% and 13.4%) and to overcome the shortage of goods (32,7% and 24.7%). Among the negative consequences indicate that private property becomes the cause of the stratification of society into rich and poor (45,7% instead of 53.8%). However, the respondents, when speaking about private property, have become much more likely to mention the related “exploitation of man by man” (25% instead of 15.9% as at the dawn of the 2000s).
Infographics “RG” / Alexandr Chistov / Anna Chetverikova
the Only important thing. Citizens a lot and passionately argue about whether the government should give free rein to private owners or let them control the economy itself. For centralized regulation is now about one-third (36.8 per cent), with minimal intervention of the statestate – of 7.6%, for the whole responsibility for what is happening in the country carried its leader, and the type of economy, let it be any, at 25.1%, undecided – 13.7 percent. The majority believes that the state should take the lead in key areas (extractive industries, electricity, metallurgy) and in the field of education, medicine, pension. Private owners are willing to allow in banks, museums, theatres, partly -in clinics, housing and transportation, in the media. The majority of citizens are clearly opposed to our country private property acquired by foreigners.
But all this when talking about something General, in the whole country. Citizens opposed to the state had violated the right not just private, and their personal property. No one agrees to him an apartment after repeated requests were given, and then could easily take away. Or limited the opportunity to sell and buy a house, car, garage, to rent, to make a big deal. What is mine is mine. “Our” let it be something more ambitious: mines, Railways, nuclear power plants, factories… In the opinion of a single all – rich and poor. I wish for a “national idea” it still does not pull.
National representative sociological research on a theme “pressing problems of our lives and interaction of regulators, businesses and citizens” was held FNESC Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Association of Russian banks in June 2019 in 22 subjects of the Russian Federation (112 villages) surveyed 2,000 respondents by the method of personal interviews with compliance with quota settings of the sample. Materials of other all-Russian research Institute of sociology (now FNESC) wounds.
Review of Mikhail Gorshkov, Director FNESC Russian Academy of Sciences, academician Rancidity trifle
Michael K., say after all: if we in Russia are so smart and decent, why still poor? Why: can’t get rich or you can not provide?
Michael Gorshkov: the Issue of discharge vecnih. The answer contains excerpts from courses, modern history and macroeconomics. I will not repeat the well-known. My only comment is that in contrast to States that have not experienced the delights of socialism, modern Russia is a country of “working poverty” (that is, people, even with full employment and regular wages still barely make ends meet). And the country is “poor small businesses” on the income from which is not really live. By the standards of the “capitalist world”, it’s nonsense. But in the economy of post-Soviet Russia was dominated by the public sector, and our government isn’t the most generous employer. A serious blow to the welfare of the people struck by the recent crisis.
And yet, if we compare the situation now and 15 years ago, you will notice that “Russian poverty” has changed. In the mid-2000s, it was uniformly “smeared” throughout the country and all social groups: the proportion of rich and poor was approximately the same in different regions of the country and among people of different ages. Now we can clearly see the socio-demographic groups – pockets of distress. The most difficult situation – in a cohort of older people in cities with a population of 500 thousand people, which while not capital regions. It’s all very complicated with people’s incomes, work, housing, “social mobility”, of access to good education, medicine and modern services. To state the solution to the problems of such people and entire territories – the number one task. Her decision now homing in from different angles, but it is long.
To overcome the traps of stagnation, the national projects will increase the demand.
Poverty very often entails debt. If not the neighbors “to pay”, the Bank on the loan. Judging by the number of stories involving collectors treateniya Russians and financial institutions are not too simple. Need an educational program?
Michael Gorshkov: First of all, of course, need to be able to earn a proper living, to create savings, make deposits and pay off debt. But today half of Russians live literally “from the salary before retirement” and available funds do not have. If the money is there, every fifth postpones them for a rainy day. And here it appears that the standards of financial behavior of Russians other than neighbors to the West. Only less than 10% are willing to entrust their money to the Bank. According to Rosstat, in July 2019, from 33 trillion of personal savings more than 6 trillion people kept at home “under the mattress and under the mattress”. We invest in recreation and entertainment (17%), in education and family health (12%), sometimes in real estate (5%). But it is rarely in their own business or in the securities, as do, for example, residents of Germany.
one Third of adult Russians have someone in debt to the banks to loan or of individuals “to pay”. Some completely normal people “living on borrowed time” as it happens in other countries. But many are not able to plan your finances and nervously communicate with collectors. In this respect, the educational program will definitely not hurt. But it still needs one important thing: confidence in the banking system. Over the past 15 years it has grown, but not much. The reason concerns not only the memory of defaults, crises, the collapse of the ruble and bankrupt banks. People now have a vague idea of what role the state plays, for example, the Central Bank, how are personal credit history, how does the system of Deposit insurance on what you earn the Bank and its investors, how to effectively manage the acquired shares. The operation of the financial system and structures that control, it is necessary to do in the most transparent and convenient for citizens. But the main thing is to fight poverty across the country, raising incomes. If I had money and what to spend it with maximum really – the people, in the end, will understand.