much of this “rubbish business” is based on the extraction of coal, metallic ores and other minerals – stone, sand, clay, salt, asbestos, and diamonds.
“the Burial is the final stage of the “life” of wastes, analysts explain, when they are no longer subject to further utilization, or when the company believes further processing is not economically efficient. The waste is sealed in special landfills and storage facilities to prevent the ingress of harmful substances into the environment”.
recently, the most fruitful for promothody was 2007. Their share of graves had reached 27 percent. Last year there were 15 percent. The smallest amount recorded in 2015 accounted for only 7 percent.
Graves has grown continuously over the past five years, the study said. And, according to experts of “RG”, the cumulative volume of all wastes – industrial, construction, household – approached the psychological mark, reaching 100 billion tons. And there are serious problems with their disposal. About it – comments from our experts.
Elena Trubnikova, President FinExpertiza:
For a modern state one of the major goals in ecology is that reduction in the graves and the increase in the share of recycling and disposal of industrial and domestic waste. In Russia, a huge part of the waste remains in storage – production capacity is not enough, the industrial waste is accumulated, it will not have time neither to revise nor to bury. This, of course, creates environmental risks, and the lagging development of the garbage industry deprives the Russian economy of new technological capacities and additional investment.
Leonid Khazanov, an industry expert, candidate of economic Sciences (Moscow):
– So strong growth of generation wastes is associated largely with the deterioration of the conditions of development of mineral deposits and a drop in the quality of extracted mineral raw materials. This leads to the expansion of waste dumps and tailings. For Russia, a similar amount of waste is critical, or close to it value. The area of land occupied by landfills, landfills, dumps, and other objects of accumulation and burial of waste, has reached four million hectares, surpassing the area of Belgium or Moldova. And this area continues to increase, causing great harm to the soil, groundwater, atmosphere, flora and fauna.
the Volume of accumulated waste in the country (industrial, construction, household) has more than 100 billion tons, is recycled, however, only a small part of them. To date, the main technology of processing some of the wastes of metallurgy and chemistry is the release of these construction materials. However, not all have a suitable composition, in addition, there are legal and regulatory-ttechnical limitations. For example, there are no provisions allowing the use in road construction phosphogypsum generated in the process of production of phosphate fertilizers. Therefore, the road builders refused to take it.
the same Recycling of metallurgical wastes with obtaining of additional quantities of metals are difficult because of the complexity of the technology and high costs. Pulp and paper industry and oil production is almost never recycled. Although I think that the archives of the Russian research institutes there are lots of relevant developments, biding its time.
Raphael Isjemin, Director of the scientific-educational center “New high technologies of effective use of products processing and recycling of technogenic formations and wastes of power” (Tambov state technical University)
– In the coal industry, in my opinion, the main problem forms the accumulation of coal sludge, which forms in coal. It is very fine particles, similar in size to the starch particles.
as far As I know, real operating technologies for utilization of coal slime no. Burn it in utility boilers difficult. We in 2003 have tried to do so in the Rostov region. Our boilers are allowed to burn sludge, but fuel consumption was very high due to the low heat of its combustion.
Together with the joint Institute for high temperatures RAS (laboratory of “Distributed generation”), we are conducting research for the production of pellets from a mixture of coal sludge and biomass (straw). Turns out it is normal fuel with a calorific value as good varieties of brown coal. Such pellets can be burned in utility boilers.
the Interest shown by a number of the company. But the cost of equipment for the granulation of such mixed fuel is very high. This issue should be resolved at the management level of the region. Actually, it was when we in 2002 began to engage in coal boilers in Rostov region. However, as gasification interest in the use of coal in utility energy falls. This applies to all regions of the European part of Russia.
read More in the next issue of “Russian newspaper”.