Before Peter I moved the capital in St. Petersburg, he managed to make Moscow a lot of good. He wished she was a full-fledged European city: built Western-style building of stone, acquainted the citizens with Baroque and forced them to invent about themselves and their friends a fantastic legend.

First of all, with the name of Peter I is associated Izmailovsky Park. In the village of Izmailovo childhood the future Emperor, he, like all the Royal children, spent the summer there. In his youth he had fun here in full, they say, once burned wooden shed is purely for experimental purposes. Several years after the fire, studying the barn Onnanoko pond (now reindeer), he found the boat that belonged to his grandfather Mikita Ivanovich Romanov. Small oak boat — a little more than six meters in length and weighing half a ton — that gave the British. Botik Peter liked to fix it, asked for help to Karsten Brandt, a Dutch shipbuilder, who was in the Russian service.

the boat became Europe’s first vessel, the outer bottom of the hull which was covered with copper sheets, before this practice was used only in the Roman Empire. A real work of art was the feed, with ornamental carving. In the center was a figure of the patron Saint of sailors and navigation of St. Nicholas. In honor of him and named Botik.

Soon it began to prepare for the first voyage. Single-masted sail-rowing vessel launched first on the Yauza (there was too closely), and then in a large open water space for Prozanski dam. The dam has blocked the river Serebrianka, thanks to what was the widest and the longest pond in Izmailovo. But the necessary space was not there, and the boat moved at Pereslavl (Pleshcheevo) of the lake. Peter began to learn the basics of seamanship, and thought about the Navy, going to sea, never left. And the boat later went down in history as the “grandfather of the Russian Navy”.

From Moscow to Saint Petersburg Peter moved it in 1723, after 11 years after moved back to the capital.

Under Peter I, in 1692, he completed the construction of all saints stone bridge, the first bridge across the Moscow river. It’s construction began in the 1680 m, the sister of Peter the Sophia Alexeevna had the time of her Regency.

the construction of the 170-metre structure cost the Treasury a lot of money — were even saying “more expensive stone bridge”. Its width was 22 meters high, it consisted of eight arches. Said his two facilities are located on the left Bank — all saints the tower of the White city and the Church of All Saints. Soon the bridge is expected to become one of the main attractions of Moscow. He was immediately chosen by the retailers (mainly clothing and textiles) and householdAEWA Kabakov (Muscovites liked to drink beer there, admiring the views). In 1696-m before the bridge was built a wooden Triumphal arch to welcome Peter and the troops of the Azov campaign.

In 1858, the bridge was decided to demolish it began to decay, and to repair it would not. Contributed to the destruction of the work of the dam and watermills between the supports. At this point there is a metal bridge (it stood until 1938), and then built a Large Stone bridge that we know today.

In 1695, at the intersection of contemporary Garden ring and Sretenka of Mira Avenue was built tower project military architect Michael Choglokova. Its height was 64 meters. Above her was only the bell tower of Ivan the Great in the Kremlin. The work took three years.

First, did the two first tier is rebuilt in stone Sretensky gates and the chamber over them. Above the ceiling was the pedestal of the tent, he was wearing a watch. The third tier is completed in the years 1698-1701, after Peter returned from Europe. The tower gave the School of mathematics and navigation. On the top floor made the Observatory — one of the first in the country. In the tower taught and fencing.

the Tower is immediately overgrown with legends and gossip. Most got settled in one of its chambers to General field Marshal Jacob Bruce, a close friend of Peter I. Saying that he is a dangerous sorcerer who can command the demons and the elements. Word of mouth passed on rumors about who lived in the tower of the iron bird with a human head, which was in the service of Bruce. In fact, James Bruce was not a sorcerer, a scientist, and “service” were not monsters, and brilliant knowledge of physics, chemistry, astronomy, and mathematics. He participated in the creation of the famous Observatory. In 1696 Bruce made a map of the Russian lands from Moscow to Asia Minor, and in 1707-m — map of the sky “celestial globe on a others about the field of heaven.”

the Tower was destroyed in 1934.

a Bird with a human head and other horror stories: what Muscovites talked about the Sukharev tower

In 1706 for the Sukharev tower, Peter I founded the “Apothecary garden”, is now the oldest Botanical garden in Russia. In the XVIII century it was cultivated mainly medicinal plants for the pharmacy Gostiny Dvor. Peter himself planted larch, spruce and fir — he said he was setting an example for other citizens.

to Build a garden invited professional gardeners, academics from other countries. Many employees were from Germany — they are not only grown, but also on the spot made medicines from fresh raw materials. Still there was teaching of students.

After the pharmacy owner of the garden was the Moscow hospital, and at the end of the XVIII century — the Medico-surgical Academy. In 1805-m possession entered Moscow University.

In 1704, Peter I issued a decree according to which in the Kremlin and China-town had to build stone houses. The amendment was for two reasons: practical (fires destroyed whole districts of wooden buildings) and aesthetic (the Governor had just returned from Europe and was impressed by what he saw there of the buildings from stone).

to Implement the king’s will in life was not easy — the owners, who did not want or could not afford a stone house, had to be relocated. In compensation gave the land in other places of Moscow, where it was allowed hardwood construction. However, there was a condition — the roof will certainly need either tiled or bare soil. In addition, he was not allowed to build houses inside the courtyard, on the streets.

a year later added another law. Now homeowners are supposed to monitor the safety of a wooden bridge. That the Kremlin and China-town, the tree has replaced the stone slabs, and in some parts of Moscow streets are pave with small stones.

the Passion of Peter I to the European culture reflected in the architecture. Appears Moscow Baroque, which is also called Naryshkin was one of the first buildings in this style erected Lev Naryshkin, uncle of the Emperor.

Originated in Italy in the XVI century, the style captured the heart of a Russian ruler: he loved these whimsical lines, decorative elements on buildings of unusual shape. A bright example of the embodiment of Baroque architecture in Moscow was a five-tiered temple of the Holy virgin in Fili. It was erected on the site of the wooden intercession Church, the main work was completed in 1691.

the Idea of building a temple also belongs to Lev Naryshkin. The plot on which the building, were in his possession. The structure is of red brick decorated with white stone pilasters, on form it resembles a four-leaf clover. Icons for the Church wrote the master of the Armory. On the cross, the Western Chapter has made a two-headed eagle, which would be reminded of the special favor of the Royal family. And to gild the crosses, the Ministry received 400 ducats.

by the Way, Peter I was very fond of this temple and when he went there, he sang in the choir. There is a legend that the image of archdeacon Stephen in the Church wrote him.

Another place associated with the name of Peter, — modern Sokolniki district. Here on the banks of the Yauza river near the road of the Host in 1696-1698 the years opened state-owned Chamouny (plain) yard, engaged in manufacturing of canvas for sails. In addition to the weaving of the buildings, there were small industrial and warehouse buildings. The company at that time was very large, employing more than a thousand people. Later, when it made another, and cable plant. Ropes that are produced here, as used in the domestic fleet, and sold for abroad.

Since 1701 managed by the enterprise Franz Timmerman, a merchant from Holland, a teacher of Peter in geometry and astronomy. He is the ruler trusted immensely. In the same year he established a Tannery yard, four years later — Cloth. In 1720 he issued a decree, according to which it was forbidden to bring from other countries linen fabric lower grades.

major Franz Lefort from Geneva, served in Moscow, Peter I met in 1690. They became friends — the ruler always liked witty brave people. Soon Lefort was promoted to major General commander of the 1st Moscow regiment of the election. He became a close ally of the Governor, fully shared his views. Besides, he had good references from Prince Golitsyn.

Lefort made a brilliant career: he participated in the creation of a new Royal army in the Azov campaigns (after the first became Admiral of the Russian fleet), together with Peter suppressed the revolt of the Streltsy in 1698.

Modern Lefortovo district arose because of it. At the end of XVII century here, on the banks of the Yauza, near the German settlement, founded Lefortovo Sloboda — it lived regiment of the “new system” of the archers and 50 foreign soldiers who created Lefort.

He asked the king money for the erection of necessary buildings. Was built by the famous Lefortovo Palace (after the death of the owner it was used for special occasions). Also constructed a parade ground for training exercises, barracks and much more, including a military hospital. By the way, when it appeared the first Russian surgical school and the anatomical theatre. While still in the hospital, medical students sometimes showed performances that were visited by Peter I.

once the capital of Russia moved to Saint Petersburg, the settlement had lost a military appearance. Soon there began to resettle artisans.

German settlement, located between the Yauza river and the Cuckoo stream, also connected with the name of Franz Lefort — he lived there for some time before I met Peter. Here settled foreigners, or “Germans” as it was called in Russia who spoke Russian. Among them was the Scottish General Patrick Gordon, who was also among the friends of the Governor.

the territory of the German quarter was very reminiscent of a small European town, and is heavily bribed Peter, he loved to go there. He danced foreign dances, dressed in foreign clothes, and went to Catholic Liturgy, which caused the dissatisfaction of confidants.

In the German quarter, he became acquainted with someone else’s life, without leaving the country. It was only the first contact with Europe, after which he fell in love with her forever.

However, since the beginning of the XVIII century suburban way of life has almost disappeared. The territory began to build palaces for the aristocracy. By the nineteenth century, she Russified — there lived mainly Russian merchants and fabrican��s, foreigners are almost gone.

Now, this area is part of Basmanny district.