75 years ago, February 4, 1945, began the famous Yalta conference, one of the most important events of the end of the Second world war. The leaders of the anti — Hitler coalition- the Soviet Union, the US and the UK — took key decisions about the structure of the postwar world.
Important decisions they have made in the White hall of the Livadia Palace. Here at the time of the conference lived U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt. At the round table in the same style the heads of the three strongest powers — Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill decided the fate of the whole world in the coming decades.
the Need for such a meeting, the leaders realized a long time ago. By February 1945, Europe is tired of hard war with Hitler and was in dire need of the world. But to collect the heads of the Soviet Union, Britain and USA under one roof was not easy. Churchill strongly refused to go to the Soviet Union.
“In a message to Roosevelt, Churchill wrote that the worst place than the southern coast of the Crimea, they would not find even if I searched for 10 years,” says the researcher, “Livadia Palace-Museum” Alexander of orange.
But Stalin insisted. On 3 February 1945 at the airfield of Saki landed more than 150 sides with the British and the Americans. The following eight days were spent in heavy negotiations. Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill had to define the boundaries of the postwar world already. Did not want to give any of them. But the result was enormous. The conference is the strongest example of the diplomacy of the XX century.
“Speaking about the importance of the Yalta conference, it should be noted that it is important for us because it showed a good example of how you can negotiate to countries with different political and social structures at the very serious issues that have major global significance,” — said researcher of the scientific-exposition Department of the Livadia Palace Museum Dmytro Blintsov.
The fierce debate of the “Big three” was concerned with Polish mattersOSA. Roosevelt and Churchill strongly urged Stalin to cede Poland, Lviv and Brest. The intensive talks he held while standing. In the end, the Soviet border with Poland was held at the “Curzon line” with only minor deviations. Poland’s territory expanded significantly to the West. And from East Germany at the end of the conference separated East Prussia in favor of the Soviet Union. And after Potsdam in this area will appear in the Kaliningrad region.
the Yalta conference was held in secrecy. About who will come to Yalta, to the last did not even know staff. The area was guarded by more than a thousand military. No press. In Livadia — only trusted war correspondents of the “Big three”. The first reports that in Crimea took place the meeting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill, the newspaper was published on 13 February, two days after the conference. One of these pictures in stone, stands near Livadia Palace. Today, 75 anniversary conference, laid flowers there. The Palace itself was filled by the men in uniform of the red army. In the halls of declassified documents and previously unknown photographs of the “Big three”.
It was here, in the Livadia courtyard, settled Roosevelt. Churchill Vorontsov, and Stalin at the Yusupov – right in the middle. From his Palace to Livadia, where he held a meeting of leaders of seven kilometers. Churchill drove 15. While he was in the way, Stalin and Roosevelt held secret talks on joining the Union in the war against Japan. In return, the USSR received the Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
“there was made another step towards the creation of the UN — a structure that is called upon to maintain peace throughout the world” — emphasizes the researcher “Livadia Palace-Museum” Alexander of orange.
after the conference start the cold war and the arms race, and the relationship between towhen the Union States will deteriorate. But his main task Yalta fulfilled — ensured peace in Europe.