Women and higher education
Before the revolution, women were prevented from listening to University lectures, but only as an exception and without the ability to pass exams and get a diploma. The reason was that the universities studied only men, and coeducation is not forbidden by law, but was not allowed. The issue was discussed at the highest level, but as time went on, changed the Ministers of education, and to learn women are still not allowed. Those who had the opportunity, I left to study abroad. No graduate of the Smolny Institute or the Higher women’s courses was equal to graduates of universities, girls could only be teachers. The requirement of equality for women education was the leading one of the first slogans of the women’s movement.
the Entrance ticket of the auditors.
the First Russian revolution gave a strong impetus to the women’s liberation движению1. Laws 27 August and 17 September 1905 expanded самостоятельность2 University, and a year later, at the meeting of August 17, 1906, the Council of Ministers pointed to favorable for females progress: “with regard to the further question of admission of women to institutions of higher education in the last academic year, this issue was already in practice allowed the universities and some other institutions of higher education, whose advice, understanding granted them autonomy as a disposition of all the Affairs of educational institutions allowed admission in the latest and women on the rights of volnoslushatelnitsey”3.
Petition for admission to the auditors.With the permission of her husband or parents.
Many Russian girls wanted to become lawyers, адвокатами4, and law faculties became conscious choice on their part. The only legal faculty of the Siberian University in Tomsk quickly filled with female students: by January 1, 1908, the faculty was trained 588 persons, of whom 116 were вольнослушательницами5. They were the graduates of secondary schools who were able to obtain a certificate of successful completion of examination in the Latin language in the scope of high school course with one of the men’s гимназий6; received noticed among the girls and married women, widows, girl children and without. Although participants were taken from 17 years, were more frequently heard women older than 22 years of age. 7 Some returned after teaching at the law faculties of prestigious foreign universities. For example, a Quiz Makushina – daughter of the famous Tomsk entrepreneur, philanthropist and educator P. I. Makushin in 1907-1908 took a course in legal Sciences in Tomsk after studying law in Paris университете8.
Lawyer, former rector of St. Petersburg University and Professor Bestuzhev courses for women by D. D. Grimm.
Positive comments about volnoslushatelnitsey the first sets gave the Professor of the law faculty of the University in Tomsk: “the examination Results are quite satisfactory… For the practical exercises (on political economy) the auditors found excellent training, excellent ability to understand theoretical issues, the ability of a literary statement.” This opinion was given by the Professor M. N. Sobolev. He also pointed out that the ladies studied diligently and showed “the attitude to the subject is quite conscious”9. The society was formed conviction of the futility of discrimination against women in higher education.
the Minister of national education A. N. Schwartz.
However, in government circles, the initiative of the University councils that have committed to the study of women met resistance. In may 1908, the Minister of education, A. N. Schwartz circularly ordered the girls to hearing lectures no longer допускать10. In the resulte-both faculties of Tomsk University legal and medical – at the same time was out of 260 вольнослушательниц11.
the struggle for the opening of courses for women brought the Professor to suicide
of Course, a Ministerial circular has caused strong dissatisfaction, including volnoslushatelnitsey Tomsk. Frightened by reports of the ban, they immediately sent a member of the State Duma of Siberia N. In. Nekrasov telegram with a request to learn about the University перспективе12. In the capital, about the orders of auditors Schwartz called a meeting in statements which, among other things, sounded notes of despair: “farewell the opportunity to study at Home! Goodbye the opportunity for most to get a higher education… And our long-suffering Motherland so needs cultural power,”13.
Diploma of the auditors of the law faculty.The struggle for the right to learn
the Council of professors of Tomsk University decided to initiate the petition to the Minister of the abandonment of women in the University, and the auditors tried to convey to the government offices thought about the tragedy of their situation: “Many of us before entering the University withstood a tough moral struggle risked a lot to change the old way of life, suffered material damage, left former occupations, and wholly gave themselves to science. And all this is that after two years of diligent work along with the students, after the first acquaintance with the science was made, when it increased the interest in it, we were denied the opportunity to continue the study of this science,”14.
Home archive of the Motherland: the Grandmother returned from 1916 to his granddaughter-the namesake
the Discontent of Russian students has caused a considerable resonance, and September 4, 1908, the Council of Ministers ordered to change relevant laws “female students under any circumstances at the University were not permitted,” but called for the provision of already volnoslushatelnitsey students the “opportunity to listen to the end of their elected subjects of the University course”15. Found out of this situation called половинчатым16.
29 Oct 1908 allowed women to graduate from the hearing course in the same conditions confirmed император17. Professors of Tomsk University were allowed to finish volnoslushatelnitsey started courses in their spare time and separately from the students. But the teachers due to lack of personnel and lack of audience voted to hold a joint занятий18.
anti-feminist forces gained the upper hand: the stay at the universities of hundreds of women (according to A. N. Schwartz, the middle of 1908 in Russia volnoslushatelnitsey was 2130 девушек19) came to an end, and in the ministries were dominated by sentiments which did not allow in the near future to hope for a lifting of the ban. One of the famous opponents of equality the Minister of justice I. G. Shcheglovitov clearly expressed on this occasion in a letter to Prime Minister P. A. Stolypin 21 Dec 1909: “recently there were some cases of enrollment of females by male volnoslushatelnitsey in higher education institutions… these cases seem exceptional, they are caused by the wrong interpretation of the law in the future, obviously, should not take place”20.
O. A. Bendikov”Finish education”
31 Dec 1909. the Emperor ordered to allow retained students to the examinations and instructed to develop appropriate правила21. 15 Jan 1910 last was signed A. N. Schwartz. Girls were allowed to “finish their education”, but this procedure is impeded in reality by additional obstacles. For exams they were allowed, in addition to other customary conditions, “according to wydarzenie additional tests on the Russian language (essay on a given topic), mathematics, physics, Latin language and one of the new languages in the course of the men’s gymnasium”22.
“homeland” tells the story of the most famous graduates of the Smolny Institute
Outraged by the auditors wrote a petition asking to free them from additional examinations, “as preparation for those taking a lot of time, does not expand the circle of the knowledge that I need for knowledge of the Sciences of the law faculty”. The Ministry had admitted 27 students of the University for the exams as external students are being prepared, without requiring additional exams in mathematics and физике23.
the Request of the Council of attorneys regarding the qualities of Bandicoot.
in the Spring of 1912 the auditors for the first time were able to be tested in a legal test of the Commission. Some of them, in particular Crescina L. and O. A. Bendikov, examiners characterized as “well-prepared”24. Last , the widow of an officer with four kids, aged 38 years, at the end of the University expressed the desire to become a professional юристом25 and was accepted into service of Tomsk railway. Earning the reputation as an energetic and responsible individual with excellent moral qualities, she decided to go to the bar. In 1917 Bendikov appealed to the Council of pisagenix Omsk trial chamber with a request to take her for an assistant attorney. Becoming a lawyer, she took a job as a clerk of the legal Department of the Tomsk district ways сообщения26. Examples of this kind have proved that women are capable of once considered exclusively men’s education and occupations.
As the students of the nineteenth century mined the theme of the final works
In early 1915, Tomsk state University appealed to the Ministry of national education with the petition for admission of women to listening of lectures on legal факультете27. 30 July of the same year the Council of Ministers decided to allow the admission of females into separate units of some universities, including the law faculty of Tomsk University “for free at the end of reception students jobs”28, and in 1916 there was already 19 слушательниц29. But finally the obstacles to women’s higher education was eliminated as a result of the revolution.
Volnoslushatelnitsey L. Kraskin. Who became classmates Pushkin Lyceum on the first edition
1. Yukina I. I. Russian feminism as a challenge of our time. SPb., 2007. S. 217-436.
2. Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire (PSZ RI). Coll. 3. T. 25. N 26692, 26718.
3. RGIA. F. 1276. Op. 2. D. 515. L. 3.
4. Khlytchiev S. M. Memories yuristkoy the first issue of the St. Petersburg higher women’s (Bestuzhev) courses. 1878-1918. SB. tbsp., 1973. P. 262-269.
5. A report on the state of the Imperial Tomsk University, Tomsk 1908, 1909. S. 26.
6. The conditions for admission to the number of students from Medical and Law faculties of Tomsk Emperor University in 1907-1908 academic year and the Rules of approval in Imperial Tomsk University of auditors and volnoslushatelnitsey in 1907-1908 academic year. Tomsk, 1907. S. 7-11.
7. State archive of the Tomsk region (GATO). F. 102. Op. 1. D. 473. L. 24 vol., 35.
8. Dmitrienko N. M. Tomsk merchants: a biographical dictionary (second half of XVIII – beginning of XX century). Tomsk, 2014. P. 163.
9. Czechs N. In. Professor of volnoslushatelnitsey // Union of women. 1908. N 9. S. 6, 8.
10. The Voice Of Moscow. 1908. 12 August.
11. GATO. F. 102. Op. 1. D. 420. L. about 60-64.
12. Siberian life. 1908. 31 may.
13. The appeal of volnoslushatelnitsey to the Congress of representatives of the press // women’s Union. 1908. N 5-6. P. 14.
14. Siberian life. 1908. 8 June.
15. RGIA. F. 1276. Op. 2. D. 515. L. 24-26.
16. The Voice Of Moscow. 1908. 12 September.
17. PSZ RI. Coll. 3. T. 28. N 31 104.
18. Siberian life. 1908. 31 October.
19. RGIA. F. 1276. Op. 2. D. 515. L. 8 about.
20. Ibid. F. 1405. Op. 531. D. 190. L. 62 about.-63.
21. PSZ RI. Coll. 3. Vol. 29. N 32 877.
22. Provisional rules on admission to examinations in the test fees for foreign universities students of universities, to whom, by a Royal decree of 29 October 1908 allowed to finish education // journal of the Ministry of education. New series. 1910. H 26. N 3. P. 13-15.
23. GATO. F. 102. Op. 10. 50. L. 3-20.
24. See: Kuzminova E. F. The Decree. CIT. p. 44.
25. GATO. F. 102. Op. 4. D. 231. L. 9.
26. Ibid. F. 413. Op. 1. 5. L. 17, 21.
27. Women’s Herald. 1915. N 3. P. 79.
28. Central state historical archive of St. Petersburg. F. 14. Op. 1. D. 11 113. L. about 3-3.
29. A report on the state of the Imperial Tomsk University in 1916, Tomsk, 1917. P. 30.