30 years ago Boris Yeltsin became the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.
may 29, 1990 Boris Yeltsin held the top post of Russia — became the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. The election of an opposition politician happened at the 1st Congress of people’s deputies. Yeltsin won by a margin of four votes. It is believed that some delegates voted for him due personal animosity for Mikhail Gorbachev. Just two weeks on the initiative of Yeltsin, adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the RSFSR.
in the Spring of 1990, Boris Yeltsin was a people’s Deputy of the USSR from Moscow and was the Chairman of the Committee of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for construction and architecture. In the Kremlin he consistently demonstrated a negative attitude. After Gorbachev’s opals are not many supporters of Yeltsin believed that he will be able to reach the highest state, and even more party posts. According to the memoirs of Yeltsin’s security chief Alexander Korzhakov, the environment it seemed that a career politician can be associated exclusively with his position.
“If a miracle happens, he will become Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR” — so, if you believe Korzhakov, considered 30 years ago by the Democrats. And it was not only in opposition to Yeltsin. Mikhail Gorbachev was a young and energetic General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Based on past experience, nobody believed that he would voluntarily leave his post early. Even less in 1990 represented the coming collapse of the Soviet Union.
As emphasized by Korzhakov in his book “Boris Yeltsin: from dawn to sunset”, chat with the leader of the opposition could at the time have a negative impact on his career:
on 16 may in the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow was opened the 1st Congress of people’s deputies — the Supreme body of state power of the Republic.
gathered In the hall of deputies 1050 of 1059. Of these, 86.3 per cent were members of the Communist party. The Congress was opened by the Chairman of the Central election Commission of the Russian Federation and led to his meeting Vasily Kazakov.
the First legal Soviet millionaire Artem Tarasov described the atmosphere in the hall: “the First Congress of people’s deputies of Russia, held in the Kremlin, was completely out of control a lot of motley people. The MPs wanted to be on the podium, while the speakers were not listening at all: everyone was shouting, waving his arms and shouting from the floor something slogans and appeals”.
In turn, people’s Deputy Sergey Polozkov in the book “Chubais Privatization. Voucher Scam. The shooting of the Parliament” have noticed that the citizens had for the Congress increased interest:
on 29 may 1990 the leader of the opposition of the Interregional Deputy group in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Yeltsin was elected President of the RFSFR Supreme Soviet — the highest official in Russia. According to eyewitnesses, this was preceded by a “heated discussion”. The election took place only during the third and final round of voting. The main rival of Yeltsin in this round was a candidate member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman of the RSFSR Council of Ministers, Alexander Vlasov, who was called “a puppet of the Kremlin”.
Nikolai Ryzhkov, at the time Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, noted in his memoirs that around the election of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR “sparked a sharp struggle.”
“the Deputies were openly divided into two sharply hostile camps: the Communist party-oriented and committed to the unit forces formed the movement “Democratic Russia”, — said the politician in the book “the key witness”. — This Congress commemorative marathon on election of Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Four votes, that’s about half a percent of members of Congress, ultimately shaped his future political destiny, however, and the fate of Russia! The question of the leadership of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR at the stage of preparation for the Congress was discussed at the Politburo. In my opinion, it is, and especially the secretaries of the Central Committee under the leadership of Gorbachev, made huge mistakes in this important human resources issue. They recommended that clearly are not communicating in the current environment candidates — Alexander Vlasov, Ivan Polozkova. At a meeting of the Politburo, I said firmly: that’s a good comrades, but will not support them at the Convention. We will have to give this post to Yeltsin made no secret of his desire to become the head of the highest authority of the Republic, which practically determined the life of the nation”.
At a glance Polozkova, the election of Yeltsin as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR held a “thanks to” Gorbachev.
“At a time when there had already been several votes, but none of the candidates could not score more than 50% of the vote, Gorbachev addressed the Congress. The remarks were not directly related to elections. In those days, the pressure of the top leaders on the adoption of personnel problems were considered unethical. But this time the temptation was too great, I saw he hesitated to speak or not. In the end he broke down and something disapproval expressed about Yeltsin. This phrase was veiled, but all at once understand, about whom and about what was going on. Room immediately roared, and then, during the next vote, Yeltsin passed with a margin of four votes. Many people believe it was because part of the conservative deputies, had been wavering before, hating Gorbachev, in opposition he voted for Yeltsin,” he said, Polosko��, sitting on the podium three metres from the Secretary General.
In his book, the politician expressed doubts about the reliability of the counting of votes. As told people’s Deputy Igor Ants from the urn got papers laid out in piles and then the two deputies carried out the calculations. Have Muraveva with a colleague it turned out that for Yeltsin on five more votes, and the other counters that counted a different stack of votes, they were divided equally. In terms of extra votes Yeltsin was gone.
on 12 June 1990 the Congress of people’s deputies of the RSFSR adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the RSFSR, which included the rule of Russian law in relation to the Union. For the adoption of the Declaration voted 907 deputies, against — 13 abstentions — 9. It dramatically increased the political weight of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, previously played a secondary, dependent role. July 12, at XXVIII Congress of the CPSU Yeltsin criticized Gorbachev and the party and announced his withdrawal from the Communist party.