New exhibition of the State Pushkin Museum tells the story of how the fate of the Decembrists was reflected in the mood and creativity of the poet, familiar with many of the rebels. Five stories that keep the exhibits of the Museum, in collaboration with material mos.ru and the Agency “Moscow”.
“In the depths of the Siberian ores” — one of the most famous poems of Pushkin. Written in late December of 1826 and the beginning of January, 1827, and was not published during the poet’s lifetime, it immediately gained fame. Proud line had circulated a response to Pushkin’s “will Not be in your sad work.” However, in the history of the poem Odoevskogo went through another line — “the spark will kindle a flame”, which has become a proverb.
Two passages placed opposite each other in the first room, set the tone of the entire exhibition. Next — play manuscripts-loving poetry of Pushkin, in the fields where he would draw the profiles of their friends the Decembrists. Among the fun pictures there — he signed one of the drawings. In the acronym is hidden the phrase: “I Heard about the death of Ryleev, Pestel, Muraviev-Apostol, Kakhovsky, Bestuzhev-Ryumin”.
Despite the fact that the Decembrists were executed without large concentrations of the public, the details soon became known. Pushkin while he was in exile in St Michael’s, but, of course, the details of the execution reached him. One of the poet’s drawings with five hanging, dated November 1826, contains an unfinished inscription, which many scholars see the phrase (the second version — “And I could as the jester of…”). Obviously, it is a reflection of Pushkin about what could have happened to him if he was on Senate square on December 14.
“We were the children of 1812. To sacrifice everything, even life, for the love of the Fatherland, was a heartfelt impulse. Our feelings were alien to egoism. As God is my witness that…”. This statement is sent to Siberia, executed his own brother, Sergei, is revealed in the hall, where the prints with images of battles and events of the Patriotic war and foreign campaigns of the Russian army, which had most of the conspirators.
During his stay in Europe, many young officers imbued with liberal ideas. Participation in such a Grand event as the war with Napoleon, made them feel like people.
the exhibition brothers Muravyov-Apostol dedicated to a small block of materials, including the order of Matthew, purse, embroidered by his sister and sent to Siberia. Here are a valuable portrait of Sergei brush of the unknown artist of the XIX century.
Being the sons of a diplomat, the brothers were educated in Paris, where once was held arrancasse the Emperor was isolated from groups of students one of the future leaders of the Decembrist revolt. This case is described by a good friend of the familiesand, Countess Sophie Kapnist:
up To 13 years boy and 15 have fought in the army against their former teachers. He subsequently became one of the leaders of the southern society, and the death penalty to Sergey Muravyov-Apostol was sentenced for his role in the uprising of the Chernigov regiment, raised in a couple of weeks after the events on Senate square.
the exhibition, which happened to be sentenced for 20 years hard labor, the only General of the army, took part in the Decembrist movement.
With watercolor Peter Sokolova looks brilliant officer, Alexander himself which I informally called “Monsieur Serge.” Military service Sergei Volkonsky began in 1805 in the life guards Cavalry regiment, and by 1812, the ninth among his military decorations were already Golden cross for Preussisch-Eylau, where he was wounded, and a Golden sword with the inscription.
the great Patriotic war, the Prince met with the rank of captain, to the end he was a major-General and knight of four Russian and five foreign orders. In the conspiracy of the Decembrists Volkonsky joined in 1819, becoming a member of a southern secret society. In January 1826 on, he was arrested in the case of the uprising of the Chernigov regiment.
the Second portrait of Volkonsky was written by Nicholas Bestuzhev in exile in Siberia, where the Prince was sent in the summer of 1826.
In prison for state criminals detained in harsh conditions: they were forbidden to communicate with anyone, except prison guards, they took away almost all the clothes, money and books were not allowed to be in Sebei strictly watched, that they “would not deviate from the contractors under the pretext of illness”.
Volkonsky spent in prison almost 10 years, until 1835, when he at the request of the mother were allowed to go into exile. In 1845 he settled in Irkutsk — quite. From Monsieur Serge, it seemed that it had not disappeared. We have the testimony of a person who saw him during these years:
“the old Man Volkonsky — he was then about 60 years — had a reputation in Irkutsk gray wheat bread”.
Third — a photographic portrait was made at the end of life of the Prince, when he was for Amnesty, was permitted to return to the European part of Russia. Someone from his contemporaries saw in his appearance of this period, “biblical beauty”.
the exhibition recreates a fragment of one of the best Moscow literary salons of his time — on Tverskaya street. Beloselskaya nee Princess Zinaida Aleksandrovna was a writer and poet, sang and composed music. Interested in not only art, but also the social and political life of the country.
She was one of the few who dared to publicly disagree with the harsh sentence imposed on her brother-in-law Sergey Volkonsky. Seeing that she gave leave to the husbands in Sib��Pb Yekaterina Trubetskaya and Maria Volkonskaya, the wife brother’s wife Zinaida Alexandrovna, took read his famous “In the depths of the Siberian ores”.
Alexander knew a relative of Zinaida Alexandrovna. He even Maria Nikolaevna since then, in 1820, he travelled with her family to the Crimea and the Caucasus. Researchers of creativity of the poet find glimpses of these feelings in “Eugene Onegin” (“I remember the sea before the storm”) and in the dedication of the poem “Poltava”.
the daughter of the famous General Rajewski, Mary was married at age 19. Her husband before the wedding virtually and deprivation. In Siberian exile, however, the intimacy between the spouses has not happened.
the exhibition presents watercolor portrait of Maria Volkonskaya, a double portrait of her husband which hangs in the next room. Artist Peter Sokolov showed her with a baby Nicholas that poor mother was forbidden to take with them to Siberia. Leaving Moscow, she could not have known that would never see the boy child will die in two years. Pushkin responded to his death with the epitaph:
In lights, in a joyful peace.
the throne of the eternal Creator,
With a smile he looks in the exile of the earth,
mother Blesses and prays for his father.
With another watercolor Peter Sokolova looks at the viewer girl with a red bow and sad brown eyes. It arrived in Moscow in 1823, the French milliner, daughter of a Napoleonic officer Jeanette-Pauline Gebl. It is known to all fans of Soviet cinema as Mademoiselle Pauline thanks to the film Vladimir Motyl “Star of captivating happiness” (1975).
In Russia, she began an affair with a Lieutenant of the cavalry regiment, a member of the St. Petersburg cell of the southern society. After the defeat of the Decembrist uprising he was sentenced to 20 years in prison, the deprivation of rank and nobility, and lifelong exile in Siberia.
While there was a consequence, Pauline gave birth to a daughter, but to go into exile for her lover she, as they were not married. When Annenkov was already in Siberia, she with great difficulty was able to personally deliver to Nicholas I for the departure. It said:
the Case was heard six months before Pauline was allowed to go to Siberia. The wedding took place in Chita on 4 April 1828. The shackles from the groom’s rented just for the wedding. The bride took the name.
Only after 30 years of his life in Siberia Annenkov allowed to leave this harsh region. To live in the capital were forbidden, and since 1857 they settled in Nizhny Novgorod. In marriage were born four girls and three boys.