archival reference implies that as of 1 November 1946, order of Lenin, produced only 63 612 awards. Including: Heroes of the Soviet Union – 12 208, Heroes of Socialist labour – 216, various awards – 50 765, military units, organizations and groups – 423 (GARF, fond 7523, op. 17, d. 353, p. 50).
And on the next pages – another equally significant document. In the original, is entitled: “certificate of the number of awarding orders and medals of the USSR during the great Patriotic war as at 1st April”. As can be seen from the explanations on the website of the archives, it’s all the same in 1946, but the reference is made directly to the Department of accounting and registration awarded by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
the Document is of interest in many respects.
first, it provides a summary of all awards during the war. Medals – 6 603 960, order – 4 875 695, for a total of 11 479 655. Of them labor services – 386 58. The rest, more than 11 million awards for military exploits and military distinction (GARF, fond 7523, op. 17, d. 353, pp. 11-12).
considering the current knowledge, including materials presented in the project “Stars of Victory”, I can say that this data is not complete. And not just because of the presentation of awards for distinguished service, and in particular for wounds in the war years lasted until the late 40’s and early 50’s (for example, only in 1946-m – 240 thousand in 1947 – still 408 thousand awards).
Another explanation is that, besides orders and medals (“For valor”, “For military merit” medal of Ushakov and the Nakhimov medal) that had sequence numbers and which was a personal account, during the war and immediately after it produced a huge number of awards the so-called “nenamerne” medals for the defense, liberation, capture of cities (8.2 million award), for the victory over Germany and victory in Japan (16.7 million).
But only for military merit, heroism, bravery, distinguished service and valor in the great Patriotic war, including the war with Japan produced about 38 million awards. Of them serial (ordinal) numbers have approximately 12 880 orders and medals. Such awards were organized and preserved personal (name) account. But even they, owing to various circumstances of wartime and subjective reasons the post-war years in large numbers (count – in the hundreds of thousands) are still non-delivered. The establishment of such facts and providing methodological assistance to families awarded in their independent search, we as the forces engaged in the project “Stars of Victory”.
let us Return to the archive help. Besides the obvious and understandable incompleteness it contains a little-known, and for many already available information about national and party affiliation awarded, as well as ukashows their gender.
it is Noted that such data are not collected all the awardees, and by 7.33 million. But this sample is (almost 64 percent of the awards, taken into account at the time) gives a good idea of what happened. And together with that is food for thought, how to perceive and evaluate it now.
First, the women. Contrary to popular notions, their war orders and medals really disliked: awarded for 40 men and one woman. Or – 2, 4 percent of the total number of awards.
information about party affiliation is even more interesting. They clearly indicate that have been awarded not only Communists and Komsomol members, but rather, quite the contrary: the members of the CPSU (b) candidates 34 per cent, members of the Komsomol – 16, a non-partisan fighters and commanders – 49,5, that is, each second of the received order or a medal.
Now, the most explosive stats: nationality is awarded. I will say, as is.
the First two positions, there is no sensation, is far ahead of all Russians (68 percent) and Ukrainians (13,81). On the third to sixth rows Belarusians (2,9), Jews (1,93), Tatars (1,89), Kazakhs (of 1.03). All the awardees are referred to the representatives of 36 nationalities and the combined group “Peoples of the North”.
On the other, is not a dedicated line, the nationalities of the USSR and the nationality of other countries, accounts for 0.33 per cent of all recipients – about how the Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Karelians and put together.
a scanned copy of the archival certificate from all premium statistics 1946 available for study here.
as an illustration, used documentary photographs, collected and attributed in the project “Images of war”.
Chronicle awards by year (1941 -1948)
1941 – 32 700
1942 – 395 000
1943 – 2 050 000
1944 – 4 300 000
1945 – 5 470 000
1946 – 240 000
1947 – 408 000
1948 – more than 4 000
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR – more than 835 thousand At this level, awarded the title hero of the Soviet Union and was made awarding the order of Lenin, “commander” order of Kutuzov, Suvorov, Nakhimov, Ushakov, in special cases – orders of the red banner and Patriotic war, as well as a “Marshal” order “Victory”.
commanders of fronts and fleets – more than 1, 4 million
command of the armies and fleets – more than 2, 35 million
command of corps and squadrons of ships – more than 990 thousand.
command divisions – about 2, 72 million
the commanders of brigades – more of 10.75 million
the commanders of regiments – more of 3.53 million
11 525 people (according to other sources – 11 418) awarded the title hero of the Soviet Union. Of them twice – 104, three times – 3 (Marshal Zhukov, the fighter pilots I. N. Kozhedub And A. I. Pokryshkin). In the case of death or posthumously award the medal “gold star” and the order of Lenin to her was passed down in the families of the victims, in some cases in museums.
2 562 participants of the great Patriotic war were awarded the order of Glory of three degrees. It was established by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of November 8, 1943 and was considered the most honorable soldier award. Total produced more than 1 560 028 awarding the order of Glory of different degrees. According to the project “Stars of Victory”, the order of Glory of the first degree have not received 230 awarded (every eleventh), II degree – 6791 (every seventh), III degree – 177 thousand people (almost a fifth).
the Order of Lenin (founded by a Decree of the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR of April 6, 1930, as the highest state award) during the great Patriotic war produced more than 41 thousand awards. Number 6115 non-delivered orders.
Less often presented to the order of Ushakov (two degrees, 247 awards) and order of Nakhimov (with two degrees) – 540 awards.
Even shorter – just 19 awards made Marshal’s order of “Victory” (established by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of November 8, 1943 in one day with a soldier’s order of Glory). I. V. Stalin, G. K. Zhukov, A. V. Vasilevsky distinguished with this award twice.