a plague of 1770-1772 these days remember often. However, in addition to the features of its distribution, statistics of cases and deaths, and, of course, the plague of rebellion, no information other publications contain. Aside the cost, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the anti-plague campaign.
For “immersion” in the material a few figures, all values are rounded to the nearest thousand. In “the plague” 1771 Catherine the revenue of the Treasury amounted to 26 000. 826 in Addition pazushnyh fees, wine, salt, customs and other payments, and also coming from the conquered provinces accounted for the proceeds from undercover dissenters double salary — 33 thousand roubles, Orenburg Aptera (Bashkir ethnocommunal groups) and landless — 27 thousand rubles. and even Ingrian inhabitants — about 11 thousand.
There are in the Imperial statements information on the income from the little Russian Dragoon regiments, with all sorts of people (96 thousand rubles), and outstanding podrostkov different people, with the citizens of Cherkasy and Don podrostkov villages and suburban regiments (386 thousand rubles.).
by the Way, the balance then incited not to the penny, and to her share. Without computers and calculators.
with regard to ordinary and extraordinary expenses (26 637 000 rubles), then the largest item was (and remained in the future) “the cost of military-overland Department” — 9 033 000 rubles, or 34% of budget expenditures, together with the costs of the fleet and the Admiralty — 1 904 000 rubles., — absorbed in that year, 42% of all spending of the Treasury.
the Above “immersion” is an interesting financial fiction, but no more. Respect the author, acquainted with the budgetary list for 1771 But what is it, since you’re talking about the plague? And the fact that spending budget, and for some reason, in ordinary, not extraordinary, there is an article “measures for protection from pestilence”, spending on which is stated only once, in the same 1771, in the amount of exactly 19 000 rubles., despite the fact that on other articles, let me remind you, figures with fractions of cents.
At the same time, according to research by the direct participant of those events, the doctor and the economist Athanasios Shafonsky, “Description of the plague, in the former capital city of Moscow from 1770 to 1772”, for deliverance from the plague in Moscow was spent (again, exactly) 400 000 rubles, or 1.5% of all expenditures in 1771 (in budget expenditures 2020 — 293 bn). And not for a year, and for a few autumn months.
In the end, about the total expenses of 400 thousand know all those involved in “plague story” the end of the XVIII century About 19 thousand, as reflected in the budget read, nobody.
it was with what to compare: in that period the total expenditure of the Treasury for the colonization of conquered territories several years in a row was exactly 200, 000. That is for a few “plague” months were wasted (stolen, has) two the annual budget for obustroitin the annexed lands and their inhabitants.
the Difference is more than 21 times suggests that either bad scientists believed (which is unlikely), or those who spent money on anti-plague activities 1771, hoping that very soon the exorbitant spending (expenses) will be written off and forgotten, because the winners are not judged.
some argue that the epidemic, the massive loss of life and extra spending budget certainly led to the fact that in the future the revenues decreased. This is true, but only partly. In 1771, revenues grew by 4.2%. However, in 1772, revenues still fell (by 1.8%); but it didn’t happen by reducing pazushnyh of taxes, as a result of reducing customs duties and revenues from the conquered territories.
will Not be confirmed and the assumption that 400 000 RUB was “spread out” for other socially oriented items of the budget. In 1771, in the article “drugs” for several years were not allocated a penny (the latter spending was recorded in 1767), and the costs of “charitable institution”, though has increased from 1.5 thousand in 1771 to 24 thousand rubles. in 1772-m, but with 1773 disappeared altogether.
Where did the money? Coincidentally, in 1769, Catherine II issued paper money, that is, ran a printing press. The temptation to use it was always great. Catherine’s courtiers began to use the issue in tail and mane: if year of start of paper money the total amount of all bills amounted to 2.6 million rubles., in 1771 — is already 10.7 million rubles., and in 1774-m — all 20 million rubles.
Think, wasted 400 thousand when printed fresh 10 million.
the first step is the hardest: after fifteen years, in 1787, the sum of all banknotes in circulation amounted to exactly 100 million rubles., then began the depreciation of the paper ruble to silver. In 1769 rubles were exchanged at the rate of 1 to 1, in 1796, the year of the death of the Empress, the course was already of 0.79 to 1, and in 1807 1 paper ruble gave only half silver. To restore the circulation of money was possible only after 40 years.
With the plague fought not budget money, and emissions.
Who was so cunning that he was able in just a few months to “learn” an enormous sum of 400 thousand? This virtuoso was Catherine’s favorite adjutant General count Grigory Orlov, sent from St. Petersburg not only to deal with the plague, how to clean abandoned to the fate of the rebellious city. The count arrived in the mother see on 26 September (rebellion happened September 15-17), but not on a white horse, and four regiments of life guards, payroll to 9 thousand.
With the plague came to fight, yeah.
the Count began with the fact that he found and hanged the ringleaders of the rebellion, was buried with military honors the innocent victims of Archbishop Ambrose, and also caught, ripped nostril and sent to Siberia are the most active participants of disorders. What to adverroemich now commissions for combating infection, but they started only in mid-October. By the way, the eagles stayed in the city a little less than 2 months and drove off back home, when the epidemic was still unclear.
Now the count is revered as the deliverer of Moscow from the plague. In his honor, even arch erected in Gatchina.
Grigory Orlov was not only a talented favorite and a good military commander, but as the Moscow event, a brilliant crisis Manager. The money he has mastered skillfully.
first, has been set in the plague hospitals and the safety of the house. Doctors determined the double pay and additional monthly fees: doctors — 36 rbl., the staff-the doctors — 30 RUB, healers and podlucky — 24 RUB., students — of 4.80 rubles a week. In addition, all hospitals were recruited barbers for 10 rubles, plus 50 kopecks daily for content (that’s really who need literally every day!), and nurses with a salary of 5 rubles. in Addition, all provided with clothing and food.
second, on 26 October, the Empress issued a Decree “On conveyance means to feed the common people, deprived thereof, on the occasion clingy in Moscow disease”, which introduced public works for the expansion of the Chambers-collegiate shaft. This was done in order to “deliver the SIM people bogotastrasse food, and to destroy idleness, the culprit of all evils”. The job was minor, but still: men — 15 COP., the female on 10 kopeks a day, and those who will come with his instrument, put on 3 COP.
third, many people hide the disease, since all the property and clothing of the diseased burned. Declared his illness and subsequently discharged from the hospital believes “lifting”: 10 RUB married and 5 unmarried RUB. The reward was announced and the informer left after about dead things: the authorities feared a second wave of plague that could come with the return of warm weather. The informer relied for 20 rubles for each discovered plague the economy.
Organization of hospitals, observation, warehouses for storage was also completely at the expense of the state. Kids who lost their parents were placed in created on Taganke “the crown of a dependent special house”, where after quarantine, they were transferred to the Moscow Imperial orphan’s house. Outside of the city and quickly there were eight new cemeteries (the ninth, on the Sparrow hills, was arranged, but was reserve). Moscow the roof were provided with bread and food.
And was built outposts on driveways, produced, procured in great numbers and used for the purpose okunevaya mixture of several kinds were constant disinfection of all public presences.
From the couch again argue that it’s not just the money spent, and people’s health. And I don’t find that hole punch��it demagogues. Indeed, from April to December 1771, died in Moscow 56 672, and Catherine in 1775 called the number at “more than 100,000”, while for the whole of next year in the city died only 3592 person.
since fighting epidemics in the eighteenth century.