Scientists in the US and Switzerland found antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, in humans who recover from SARS in 2003. About the case of cross-immunity to the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, reported in an article published in the journal Nature.
The researchers found that infection of SARS-CoV that caused the outbreak of atypical pneumonia 17 years ago, causing the production of different antibodies that target protein-“spike” (S-protein). S-protein plays a key role in binding of the coronavirus to receptors on the surface of the host cell, after which the virus penetrates. Antibodies are synthesized by a special kind of immune cells called B-memory cells.
As shown by experiments, one of a variety of produced antibody — S309 effectively neutralize pseudovirus (biologically safe recombinant virus) SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, and virus SARS-CoV-2 through detection of the portion (domain) S-protein that directly interacts with cell receptors. Both coronavirus belong to the subgenus of sarcomeres and have identical epitopes — parts of the S-protein targeted antibodies. Thus, people infected with coronavirus by one, be immune to another.
As the authors write in the article that contain S309 mixture of antibodies synthesized by B-cell memory after infection with SARS-CoV, increase neutralization of the novel coronavirus and prevent the emergence of mutants resistant to the acquired immune response. Such cocktails of antibodies can be used for the treatment of severe complications in patients with COVID-19 or prevention of infection in people at high risk of infection.