As can be seen from research Professor, University of Manchester innovation research and Technology University of Georgia Philip Shapira, the innovation support system in the United States is highly diversified and decentralized. Among its members are the branches of the Federal and local governments, universities, private sector, non-profit organizations and intermediary companies. The system combines a large amount of R & d (basic research funded by governmental agencies) and focus on the practical application of the developments in the market. The Federal government supports innovation through development of infrastructure and targeted programs.

Local government, in turn, usually provide direct support to companies associated with regional business and program development of the economies of the States. Assessment of the White house, in the 2019 financial year total spending on innovation and R & d in the United States amounted to 495 billion dollars, accounting for 25% of the funds allocated for similar purposes by all States of the world.

In the United States also has a program to support the industry Manufacturing USA. It brings together 14 private institutions and three ministries that Fund them – the Commerce, defense and energy. In addition, program participants are more than 1,900 organizations representing small and large manufacturers, academia and other enterprises. Each institution specializiruetsya on a separate area of advanced manufacturing technologies. However, they have one goal – to ensure the future of the country through innovation, education, collaboration, and production. Institutions enable communication between program participants, conduct joint research and development in order to resolve the most complex problems facing the industries, and to educate residents of the country’s most advanced professional production skills. According to the latest available data in 2017, the contribution of industry to GDP was 19.1%. The share of spending on research and development in the United States is estimated by experts of UNESCO, at 2.7% of GDP.

Innovation policy of the European Union ensures the interaction between research, technological development and industry. It aims to create a favourable basis for the realization of ideas into products on the market. The main instrument to support innovation in the EU, according to the materials of the European Parliament, are the initiatives laid down in the framework taken in the next few years. The latter sets goals, priorities and the amount of financial support. The EU authorities recognize the importance of innovation policy, which is closely related to other measures in the areas of labor protection, protection of competition, protection of the environment. The main objective of Inno��forming is to transform research results into new and improved products and services in order to allow companies to remain competitive in the global market and to improve the quality of life of EU citizens.

currently, the EU spends on R & d 0.8% of GDP (according to world Bank data, Eurozone GDP in 2018 amounted to 13 587,75 646 million dollars), behind on this indicator from the U.S. and Japan. In addition, statistics are evidence of the fact of leakage of young professionals. The best researchers and innovators from the EU go to countries with more comfortable conditions. The share of industry in GDP of the unit (according to the latest available data in 2017) is 25.1%.

to change this trend, the EU has developed the concept of “innovation Union”, providing for the removal of barriers to innovation (expensive patenting, market fragmentation, slow standardization, lack of professional skills), a fundamental change in the method of the joint work of public and private sector (creation of innovative partnerships between EU institutions, national and local authorities, and business).

the European Union plans in 2020 to increase R & d expenditure to 3% of GDP. Under this policy, the adopted Horizon 2020 for the integration of research and innovation. It costs $ 74.8 billion euros.

on the other hand, financial support to the national industry or individual companies, governments, the European Commission considers as an unfair advantage over similar protectorate other member States of the EU.

the Task of the Commission is to prevent unfair competition, allowing government support only if it will serve the interests of the General public. That is, when such assistance will benefit society or the economy as a whole.

however, this approach does not exclude assistance to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). For he developed the program COSME. However, financial support for SMEs in the EU generally is not of a direct nature. Assistance is provided through local, regional or national authorities, as well as through intermediaries – banks and venture capitalists. They provide funds through its financial instruments.

COSME is valid from 2014, the end of the programme, scheduled for 2020. The European Union has allocated a total of 2.3 billion euros.

Great attention to innovation pays, and China. According to company of the country from 2009 to 2019 was sent to R & d in excess of 1.8 trillion dollars.

Growing financing R & d and improvement of its structure serves as a good tool in implementing the strategy of innovative development, I think the statistical office of the country. At the same time were noted and the area where China lags behind the developed countries in the share of expenditure on fundamental research. There is a very strong likelihood that the country will reduce the gap with the leading foreign powers. PRC has created several funds to help local producers. For example, the Fund of assistance to industry has the capital to 21 billion dollars. Funds are allocated by the Ministry of Finance and several public sector organizations. Regarding the share of industry in GDP of China, in 2019, according she was 39%.

In the Russian Federation there are a large number of tools for the development of industries and companies. One of the main national programme “Digital economy”. Its mission is to create a new model of interaction between business, authorities, expert and scientific communities for the competitiveness of Russia at the global level. In addition, the state program “Developing industry and increasing its competitiveness”, approved by the government in 2014. According to the results of its implementation by 2024 in the country should be created “competitive, stable and structurally balanced industry, capable of effective self-development based on integration into the global process environment, the development and application of advanced industrial technologies in order to enhance productivity aimed at the creation and development of new markets for innovative products, effectively solving the tasks of economic development of the country.” Meanwhile, from the data of Rosstat, as of 2019, the share of industry in GDP amounted to 29.8%. The share of expenditure on research and development in all sectors, according to experts of UNESCO, there were 1.3% of GDP or 40.3 billion dollars at purchasing power parity. Only in 2020, according to the Ministry of industry and trade, to the development of industries will be allocated to 485 billion rubles, and the total amount of funding the Federal budget will amount to 1.06 trillion rubles.

In the program, in turn, includes 21 sub-programme aimed at a particular industry. In addition there are special programs and departments. For example, the Ministry of industry, the objective was to stimulate the creation and development of engineering centers on the basis of private companies. The participants performed the state development institutions (Vnesheconombank, RUSNANO, SKOLKOVO, the “Russian venture company” Russian Foundation for technological development). The government believes that public support of, among others, will help to modernize the technological base, provide a significant influx of non-budgetary investments into renewal of fixed assets and increase production capacity.

Russian companies are to rely on subsidies from the Federal budget to stimulate innovative activities, using a special development institution in the sphere of small and medium enterprises (SME Corporation), participation in programs of support of innovative entrepreneurship. Domestic start-UPS provide support to venture capital funds, for example, the Fund for Internet development initiatives Fund of assistance to development of small forms of enterprises in scientific-technical sphere and the SKOLKOVO Foundation.

meanwhile, domestic companies do not always know to whom they can turn for support, under which projects are issued credits, tax incentives, and other bonuses. This may help in a program that allows you to find partners for the industrial enterprises among start-UPS.

According to Alexey Belyakov, Vice-President, Executive Director of the Cluster of advanced production technologies of the SKOLKOVO Foundation, his organization continues to support interesting projects aimed at solving acute problems in various industries. The main requirement to the applicant is the commercial potential of the proposed solution.

“But we do focus on projects that can be attributed to Industry 4.0. This variety of digital technologies and IT services for industrial applications, robotics, UAVs and drones and, of course, everything related to new functional and structural materials and additive technologies for the customization of the production, explained Alexei Belyakov. We took into account when conducting accelerators together with “Severstal”, “NPO Energomash”, “Rosatom”, as well as online accelerator Skolkovo Techno Community and program selection and start-up support for the industry “promtekh”.

As explained in connection with the pandemic priorities have changed. Now, first and foremost the Foundation aims to financially support projects aimed at combating the virus and its consequences. For example, in the portfolio of the organization there are companies in 3D printing FDM technology, which already now in some regions of Russia print masks, filters for anti-plague suits and may, if necessary, quickly enough to expand the production of the Venturi for resuscitators and Ambu bags.

support can apply and projects that improve the quality of remote working employees and replace personnel with robots and drones. As an example, the expert leads the company UVL Robotics, which produces Autonomous warehouse drones. Warehouse inventory is a difficult process involving a large number of staff, and the use of Autonomous drones allows to reduce the complexity of the procedure, on average, six times.

“this grant support Fund is not the only service that a computer��AI successfully used for the efficient growth start-UPS, – said Alexey Belyakov. – Among other tools – participate in various acceleration programs, business missions and exhibitions. For example: in 2019 startups the Fund has received over 100 billion rubles of revenue. A year earlier this sum amounted to about 70 billion rubles.”

Another active participant in the innovation ecosystem of Russia – “Russian Bank of support of small and medium enterprises” (SME Bank). If a startup expects to receive any benefits, it is first necessary to prove that he is, explained the Deputy Chairman of SME Bank Roman Kapinos. For startups, the organization will include the SMEs, from the date of registration to apply to the Bank guarantee was not more than five years. Among other conditions – to work in high-tech industries or priority areas of science and critical technologies.

the aid can count and “gazelles” – fast growing innovative high-tech SMEs, if they work at least three years, the average annual rate of growth in their revenues over the last three years amounted to not less than 20% and these companies operate in the priority sectors of the economy. Projects that meet these criteria, are highly competitive.

“We see quite a number of projects funded under the contracts for the supply of goods, performance of works or rendering of services to large corporations, said Kapinos. As an example, the resident of the “SKOLKOVO” – “Profotek”. The company is engaged in manufacturing special optical fibers and fiber-optical measuring devices based on it. In 2019, the Bank granted a loan in the amount of 50 million rubles for the project on investment activity in the part of engineering and surveying design, development and installation of the equipment with the customer”.

If in 2018, the organization supported seven start-UPS (3 billion rubles) and four fast-growing innovative companies-“gazelles” (55 million rubles), in 2019 has funded 18 startups (7 billion rubles) and 7 “gazelles” (1,9 billion rubles). Respectively, marked an increase of more than twofold in all directions. It is noteworthy that, despite the unfavorable epidemiological situation, this year, SME Bank has already recorded a further increase in demand.

As told in the SME Bank, for long practice of using the innovative companies have identified a number of problems. For example, in the legislative and normative acts do not define the concept of “innovative company” or “high-tech company”, as well as there is no state program governing the development and support of innovative or��sociotechnological activities in the country. In addition, for this kind of project remains a high tax burden compared with the fiscal burden of similar companies in developed and some developing countries. And this is not a complete list of problems.

At the same time, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of measures state aid for start-UPS is part of these companies is closed, regardless of the support measures, and this is a normal process, according to the practice partner at the strategic consulting company “neo Centre” Alexey Volostnov: “For startups it’s more important to have a stable and transparent legal system and protection of intellectual property, rights of shareholders and investors, extensive options for structuring the ownership”.

with the exception of the sector of the defense industry and atomic energy, the Russian industrial sector is not very competitive in world markets, the expert believes. “Of course, in different branches of the company there are exceptions, more of them, but overall, Russia’s share in the world industrial market does not exceed 1%. In this sense, the volume of state aid has no fundamental influence on the situation”, – said Volostnov.

the Presence of a developed market venture capital funding from initial pre-seed-stage to later rounds until a public offering (or major strategists interested in acquiring a Mature business) is extremely important. If there is a market and competitive environment, companies can develop their own, and in its absence the measures of state support will not help. We can say that in Russia at the legislative and practical level, largely implemented, all known in the world of measures to support start-UPS, concluded the expert. But everything changes when it comes to monetary terms of these expenses. With a comparable contribution of the industrial sector in the United States and Russia, there is a strong backlog on the size of expenditure on innovation and research: 495 billion dollars on R & d in the United States against 40.3 billion dollars in Russia.