It is believed that the battle of Vienna in 1683 was carried out by the Ottomans and the Christians, and crowned with complete victory for the latter. But if you delve into history, it becomes clear that this battle is not to be considered a symbol of opposition to the West and East, Christianity and Islam, the author argues Dagsavisen.
the Doug Herbiers (Dag Herbjørnsrud)
Dagsavisen wrote that the political terrorist attack on 22 July 2011, it became almost a taboo subject in the Norwegian school. Years later, after Anders Behring Breivik (Anders Behring Breivik) killed 77 people, our students know very little about this terrible day, which is quite unique in world historical perspective. About al Qaeda’s attack* on the world trade center, the Norwegian education system to inform students in more detail.
And not only in the selection of themes and events. Equally important, how to present them. Because for the present extremists, the story becomes more and more important. And Fjordman (Norwegian blogger, which Breivik repeatedly cited in his Manifesto — approx. ed.), and Breivik said that the interpretation of the past is a key battleground to win supporters in the future.
While supporters praise the prophet Mohammed 600 years, “the Soldiers of Odin” (right-wing extremist organization in Scandinavia — approx. ed.) cry to the Norse gods. Shared from the self-proclaimed extremist Islamists and defenders of Europe that they believe in a 1400 year old conflict between Islam and the West.
An important symbol of this conflict was the infamous battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683. The blog “Gates of Vienna” (Gates of Vienna is an Islamophobic blog — approx. ed.) called himself in honor of this bat, so did Anders Behring Breivik in his Manifesto “2003. European Declaration of independence”. Year 2083 refers to the 72-year-old long-term plan up to the 400th anniversary of the victory over the Turks at the gates of Vienna. According to theorists of Eurabia, in 1683, Europe was saved from Islamic invasion.
But whether the interpretation of the history of the extremists is different from what they teach most people, in particular children?
In an article in the Norwegian Wikipedia says: “… the battle of Vienna was fought between the Ottomans under the leadership of Kara Mustafa and the German-Polish troops led by Jan III Sobieski. The battle culminated in the victory of the Christians and put an end to a two-month Turkish siege of Vienna”. The wording “the complete victory of the Christians” has remained unchanged since the appearance of the article in 2008.
In a Large Norwegian encyclopedia we find the same interpretation, the same applies to the characterization of the “Savior” of Vienna, the king of Poland Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696): “In 1683, he saved Vienna from the Turkish siege, drove the Turks from Austria and later defeated them in Hungary.”
But is it really? In a very small extent explains ��the cause of the battle was the oppression of the Lutherans in the Vienna Empire. The rebellion against the Empire of the Habsburgs in 1670-ies raised not the Turks and the hero of the Hungarian and Protestant struggle for the liberation of Imre thököly (Thököly Imre, 1657-1705). Tekeli belonged to the Lutheran minority and fought against the oppression of the Catholic authorities in Vienna and the Pope.
During the first battle in 1678, with the assistance of Tekeli promised Catholic “the sun king” (Louis XIV) of France, who also fought with Vienna. “The sun king” wanted to seize the Ottoman Empire, with which France was a peace Treaty with 1530-ies.
In 1682 thököly made an Alliance with Sultan Mehmed IV, who recognized thököly king of Western Hungary, in exchange for tribute, and this had guaranteed Protestants freedom of religion during the reign of the Ottomans.
In the battle of Vienna in 1683 the Ottomans, mostly Muslims, were allies of the Protestant principalities of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldova. On the side of the Ottomans was transylvany, and Vlachs, Moldovans, and Crimean Tatars, and the Janissaries, and the Hungarians are Protestants. However, the Lutheran Tekeli and Sunnis-the Ottomans helped their Catholic ally “sun king”, who sent an army against the Western front of the Habsburgs. In 1683 Vienna was opposed multi-faith Alliance.
That Europe was alliances with the Ottomans from Istanbul, was nothing new. The saying “Better the Turks than the Pope” was at the end of the XVI century the motto of the Huguenots and Calvinists in cities such as Amsterdam. After the counter-reformation Protestants believed that they needed allies in the struggle with the papal power. During the Thirty years war (1618-1648) Denmark-Norway was mostly on the side of France and the Ottomans against the Habsburgs. The Protestant Danish-Norwegian state Vienna in 1683 did not help.
What about the Polish Sobieski, who allegedly “expelled” Turks out of Austria? He went to Vienna with the Sunni soldiers — Tatars. They are often called “Tatars-sticky”, because they lived for many years in Lithuania. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth lived at that time, several hundreds of thousands of Muslims. They were descendants of the Tartars of the days of Genghis Khan, who was in the area of Vilnius in the fourteenth century, invited the Grand Duke Vytautas. For centuries, the Tatars played a Central role in the armies of Poland and Lithuania.
A large cavalry regiment, consisting of such soldiers, played a decisive role when Sobieski went to Vienna. And how can one distinguish soldiers when Muslims and Christians were on both sides? Tatars-limes during the advance on Vienna on 12 September 1683 stuck to their helmets with long branches. So, they clearly differed from the Ottoman forces from their Crimean Tatars.
According to tradition, Lipka Samuel Murza (Samuel Murza) saved the life of Sobieski in the autumn of 1693. As a thank you gift SobieskiIl Tatar Colonel large of land in Kruchinina in the East of Poland. Sobieski knew the Tatar language and bestowed their best warriors and the lands and honorary titles, and has also exempted them from paying taxes. So if someone is “saved Europe from Islam”, it was the Muslims themselves.
The battle of 1683 is not a story about Islam against Christianity. Rather, it is one of the best proofs of the fact that in Europe several centuries continued cooperation among religious faiths. But now neither Christians nor Muslims nor atheists don’t actually know. Today the past is often portrayed as that of extremists is growing.
* a terrorist organization banned in Russia