On August 3, the African state of Niger celebrates its 60th independence day. History of independent Niger is rich in successful and unsuccessful coups, but for almost ten years, the country lives in peace, with a President elected in a democratic way.A country rich in uranium and the children of Rudov news the name of this country, politically incorrect to the ear, recently rare. A few facts, allowing you to get a General idea about this country.Niger world total fertility rate — the average number of children born to one woman for life. According to the world Bank for the year 2018, the figure is 6.9. At the time of independence country’s population was about 3 million people, now around 23 million people.Niger is ranked fifth in the world in production of uranium — 2983 tons in 2019, according to the world nuclear Association.About the presence of deposits of uranium ore in the province of Agadez became known in the colonial 1950-ies. In 1971, Somair start working on the first uranium mine Charlie. 63,4% of the shares owned by Somair, a French state-owned company’orano, previously bore the name Areva and Cogema, the rest of the Nigerien state company Sopamin. In 1978 began mining uranium ore in the field of Acute, the company Cominak. Its largest shareholder is also the French’orano — 34% of the shares at Sopamin 31% of Japanese OURD 25% of the Spanish ENUSA — 10%. The third field Imouraren (of 66.65% of’orano, 33,35% of the Nigerien side) not currently being developed due to adverse market uranium.GDP per capita calculated at purchasing power parity, according to the world Bank, was in 2019 $1269,6. This is seven times below the world average. 41,4% of the population of Niger live below the poverty line.Photo: Joe Penney / ReutersОдна party, one presidentoperations the history of Niger is closely linked with the national question. A large part of the population (about 53%) are representatives of the people house. The second largest — djerma and other ethnic groups of the people of Songhai (21%). The nomadic peoples of the desert, the Tuareg and toubou — about 11%. The Fulani of 6.5%, Kanuri — 5,9%.While politics is dominated by the djerma-Songhai, who live in the West of the country. In the colonial era, they were more exposed to French influence. In 1927 the French colonizers even moved the capital of Niger from Zinder to Niamey, the majority of the population is djerma. Hausa dominate in the business sphere. In Agadez, the region of uranium mining, dominated by the Tuaregs.At the Berlin conference of colonial powers in 1884-1885 in modern-day Niger was assigned to the French sphere of influence. In 1946, in connection with the restructuring of the French colonial Empire Niger received the status of overseas territory within the French Union. In 1958, as well as 11 other African colonies of France, became an Autonomous Republic in the French community. August 3, 1960 was proclaimed the independence of Niger.Both were members of the Niger in the French Parliament.Diori was the head created in 1946, the Niger progressive party (NPP). It was part of the African democratic Union, a Union of political forces of the French colonies who were for independence.Excluded from the NPP Bakari in 1954, he founded his own party “the Nigerien democratic Union”, later transformed into the party of Savab (translated from the Hausa language — freedom). In the referendum of 1958, when it was a question whether to stay the Niger within the French community, or to declare independence, Djibo Bakary campaigned against independence and lost the majority of supporters. In 1959 the party of Savab was banned.After independence, the NPP became the only legal political party in the country, and its Secretary General Amani Diori became the first President of independent Niger.Photo: Keystone / Getty Madev 1965 and 1970 Diori was re-elected to the presidency in an uncontested election. In terms of single-party rule policy in the country determined by the President-the General Secretary and the Politburo NPP. The composition of the Politburo remained practically unchanged from 1956 to 1974. Of the 12 members of the Politburo of the eight belonged to the djerma-Songhai, the three — mavri (the ethnic group of Hausa people), one was mestizo. Djerma of Cormo Barkume and Metis Rene Delane in 1971 were removed from the Politburo. In the list of Ministers during the reign of Diori, you can find Hausa, Fulani and one of the Tuareg, the Minister Sahara and nomads.In 1963 he was involved in a botched military coup. Was arrested its leaders — captain Hasan Dialo and the Minister for Africa Ihia Sodi. Both were members of the Fulani people. There were suspicions of involvement in the conspiracy of the party of Savab.April 13, 1965 a member of the party made an unsuccessful assassination attempt on the President.Niger have provided humanitarian assistance. The country’s leadership and the ruling party used it for personal gain. 40 cars transferred to international humanitarian organizations have been turned into taxis in the capital. The food obtained through humanitarian assistance, resold or stored in warehouses in expectation of higher prices.Photo: Nationaal Archief NL / Eric Kushlani corrupt country was the President’s wife Aissa (ICATU) Diori. The opposition called it the Austrian, with a hint of French Queen Marie Antoinette and wish the first lady the same fate. During the reign of her husband, she became the owner of a large fortune, buying up expensive nnedvijimosti in Niamey and renting it at high prices to foreign embassies and missions of international organizations. Aissa Diori also owned farmland in the suburbs of the capital.Photo: AFPВоенная Pashaw the night of April 15, 1974, the day of Catholic Easter, the army under the leadership of the 42-year-old Lieutenant Colonel of Sani Kuncha coup. The members of the coup resistance, as only the presidential guard. In the shootout killed several guardsmen, a few rebels and the people hated Austrian, the President’s wife and her parents — only about 20 people. He was arrested the President, all Ministers, the head of Parliament and several party leaders. Power passed to the Supreme military Council. It suspended the Constitution, dissolved the Parliament. Was released the political prisoners and political opponents of Diori, who were in exile were allowed to return to the country.Photo: AP17 April of Sani Kuncha was appointed as the new President of Niger’s Supreme military Council.The reasons for violent regime change were several. Despite half a decade of independence, in all spheres of life were very serious French influence. Diori was surrounded by French advisers, which his political opponents was called the “Corsican mafia”. More than 90 of the French occupied a high public office. The most famous was the personal assistant of President Nicolas Leca and don Jean Colombani, the last Governor, officially responsible for the delivery of the Nigerien peanut to France, and who was really the intermediary between the two governments.The army were sent to agricultural work, forced to collect taxes, used to quell riots in Niamey in 1972-1973. The military did not like that the army forced to collect taxes that in the country there are too many French military personnel that the military cooperation agreement with Libya, the President Diori signed independently, without the involvement of the army command. After the military coup by the French military was asked to leave Niger. Special discontent of the army was aroused by the idea Diori about the creation of new power structures — “party militia”.Before the oil crisis of 1973, the uranium, the main wealth of the Niger, brought the country some 23 million CFA francs per year (460 thousand French francs, $92 million). When the crisis struck, the presidents of Niger and Gabon (which also mined uranium) decided to stand United and to achieve revision of agreements with France. The French side wanted to give in. April 2, 1974, died the President of France Georges Pompidou, President Diori arrived at the funeral in Paris. He was promised that on April 19 in Niger will arrive the French delegation to sign a new agreement on ��the wound. But on this day, Niger has rules not Diori, and the Supreme military Council of the Niger at the head of Sani Kuncha.After the successful coup Kuncha was followed by several unsuccessful against him. Major Sani Sido Premises, the person No. 2 in the Supreme military Council, was arrested on 2 August 1975 for the preparation of a military coup. Some of the conspirators died in prison, others were released in 1983.14-15 March 1976, the government suppressed a coup attempt by major Bayar Moussa and captain Sidi Mohammed. Was captured the radio station, a few buildings. Attack of the coup on the presidential Palace were repulsed. Clashes lasted for several hours. Were killed in the fighting, according to official data, 8 people, according to unofficial — 50. Major Moussa, captain Mohammed and 5 (or, according to others, 7) people were executed on 21 April 1976. 28 people were sentenced to life imprisonment.Another rebellion was suppressed 5-6 October 1983, the clashes killed one person. The rebellion happened in the absence of the President Kuncha in the country. The main conspirators was his friend and adviser on security issues, Jorge Omar, nicknamed Bonino, the commander of the presidential guard Lieutenant Idrissa Amadou, and the commander of the garrison of Niamey major Amadou Seydou. After the failure of the majority of the participants of the rebellion fled the country. Bonino back in 1991, having received security assurances, gave the National conference of testimony on corruption of the previous regimes.Major-General of Seine Kuncha died 10 November 1987. The head of the Supreme military Council was General Ali Saib.Photo: Tappinen / WikipediaПервый multiparty блин24 September 1989 in a national referendum approved the new Constitution of Niger. The Sahib founded a new political party “National movement for the development society” (NDOR), the only legal political party in the country. In December of the same year the party won the elections, winning every seat in Parliament, and the General Sahib was elected President.This time a one-party state lasted long. After the protest campaign, which was attended by trade unions and student organizations, General Saib agreed to introduce a multiparty system. A turning point in the history of the country became a national conference in 1991, which resulted in 1993 in the country was the first multiparty parliamentary and presidential elections, which were attended by several candidates.Photo: ARV 1991 as a result of the split in NDOR a new party “NOR of Nassar” (translated from the Hausa language — the victorious). It was headed by Mamadou Tandja. After the victory in the first round of the presidential elections of 1993, Tandja lost the second round of the Mahamane Ousmane, supported by the Alliance of several parties. The country headed for the first time beforethe representative of the people’s house.The short reign of the fourth President of Niger, mahamane Ousmane of the was marked mainly by political infighting — the redistribution of powers, the decay and formation of party coalitions, the confrontation between President and Parliament because of the candidacy of the Prime Minister (in less than three years in this position has had three people). The political crisis has allowed the army.January 27, 1996 was carried out a military coup under the leadership of chief of staff of the army of Niger, Colonel Ibrahim Barre Mainassara representative ethnic groups mavri. President Tandja, Prime Minister Hama Amadou and former Prime Minister Mahamadou the Yssouf was taken into custody. Ibrahim Mainassara acted quickly and decisively. Leading the country in January, in may, he conducted a successful referendum on adoption of new Constitution, and in July the presidential election. Opposition candidates were placed under house arrest. After the first day of their two day elections was the electoral Commission dissolved and replaced by the new. In the end, Mainassara, received 52.22% of votes, was elected the fifth President of Niger. In February 1999 there was a scandalous parliamentary elections. When it became clear that it was won by the opposition, the voting results were cancelled and new elections.The Board Manasseri ended prematurely. April 9, 1999, the President was shot and killed when not fully clarified circumstances at the airport of Niamey, possibly, soldiers of the presidential guard, perhaps trying to escape from the country.Photo: SEYLLOU DIALLO / AFPРуководивший coup, major Dauda malam Vanke led the transitional government promised to hold free elections and kept their promise.The new President of Niger has become the representative of the peoples of Fulani and Soninke Mamadou Tandja, who took office on 22 December 1999.Photo: Clement Ntaye / carproblem the third snoopafella Mamadou tanji for ten years worked in terms of political stability and democracy.In force at the time the Constitution of Niger limited the stay of the President in office to two terms. But Mamadou tanji had a desire to be re-elected for a third term. 4 Aug 2009 a referendum was held on amendments to the Constitution, including the abolition of restrictions on number of presidential terms. With a turnout of 68.3% for the amendment, were given 92.5% of the votes. The opposition boycotted the referendum.One of the most loyal to the President of the parties “Democratic and social Convention — of Ruhama” (translated from the Hausa language — merciful), headed by former President Usman, has withdrawn eight Ministers from the government in June 2009. Tens of thousands of people took in Niamey to demonstrate against the presidential idea of extending the Board.The heads of political parties, public figures, and representa��people of ECOWAS (Economic community of West African countries) and the African Union, the UN, the foreign partners tried to convince the President Tanju to abandon their ideas. The European Union has threatened to stop financial aid to the country. In October 2009, Niger was expelled from ECOWAS.The talks of the organization with the President of the Niger on the possibility of establishing a political dialogue and transfer of power to no avail.Photo: Philippe Wojazer / Eproblem was solved typical of the Niger way.18 Feb 2010 a group of soldiers attacked the presidential Palace, where at that time there was a meeting of the President with government members. The President was arrested. On the same day, the rebels announced on the radio about the transfer of power to the Supreme Council for the restoration of democracy. Was dissolved, the government abolished tailored Tango the Constitution. Was appointed civilian Prime Minister Mahamadou danda, who was tasked with forming a new government.The duty of the new government was to hold elections.31 Oct 2010 a referendum was held in which 90,19% of the participants (with a turnout of 52%) voted for a new Constitution that restored the limit on the number of presidential terms (two to five years).Photo: Mikhail Metzel / RIA Novostinews President of Niger in March 2011 was elected to Mahamadou Yssouf, remaining in this post until now. In October 2019, the President Yssouf visited Russia, taking part in the first summit Russia—Africa in Sochi. Perhaps this visit will bring a new level of relations between the two countries. While this level is low. At Russian educational institutions (mainly military) learns of several students from Niger. In 2011, the government of Niger announced the acquisition by Gazprombank of two licenses for exploration and mining of uranium in areas Tulok-2 and Tulok-4. Later, these assets changed hands. The first third of the 2020 planned opening of the diplomatic mission of Niger to Russia, not held because of the General situation in the world.Alexey Alexeev