bullying – the targeted, repeated Ready Single that emanates from a group that is in the human nature.
the Nobel prize-winning ethologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) said, mutatis mutandis, Aggression, serve in the broadest sense of the survival of the species – many species of animals attacking conspecifics that differ from the standard, and thus their genetic integrity for sure.
victims of bullying in the workplace or in school are often excluded because of a real or of the leaders of fictional otherness. Can make this every. But in the animal Kingdom, or perhaps in the stone age even in people with a direct, genetic-evolutionary sense, is used today: With the Exclusion of the other can in the short term, the own social position strengths.
With terrible consequences: victims, according to studies in later life more often from depression and anxiety disorders than comparison groups. You also have an increased risk of suicide. In the long term, bullying is but also for the perpetrators of harmful: they come in adulthood, more often in conflict with the law, such as due to theft or bodily injury, and generally have more mental health problems, compared with people who do not have earlier bullied.
Still, it always comes back to cases, in schools, in which the solid is being bullied, most recently in Wiesendangen ZH, where a 15-year-old girl after months of harassment by classmates wanted to starve to death (LOOK told). In 2017, the 13-year-old Sabrina from Spreitenbach AG took after massive bullying life.
a teacher must, from the beginning, intervene
schools, so one has the impression, the phenomenon of helpless, inactive, pushing the debt even to the victim. Teachers simply do not know how to deal with bullies is? A demand of five pedagogical universities in Bern, Zurich, St. Gallen, Thurgau, and North-West Switzerland: Today, trained teachers know this very well. At universities and in psychology research since the early 1990s, a comprehensive bullying. All requested universities to offer also, within the teacher training modules, to minimize bullying.
according to Alexander Wettstein, head of the Research focus, Social interaction and a Professor of Educational psychology at the PH Bern, four ingredients. A good teacher-student relationship is the most Important, followed by “low-threshold preventive Intervention”. This means that the teacher responds to misconduct and engages – for example, if the class laugh, comrades, if a student says something wrong. “Then immediately intervene and not, say, such behavior I will not tolerate in my class so we do not go together – this has a great influence”, Wettstein.
to create such A climate from the beginning, have an enormous effect within the class, and so the potential bullying could escape a good part of the compost. A stimulating teaching helps – who is watching and interested, less prone to stupid ideas than someone that gets bored. To say last but not least, Wettstein, belong to a “diagnostic competence” of the four ingredients, which prevent bullying. Underneath, he understands that to develop as a teaching person a sense of when something is wrong in the class. Two, three years of professional experience are required. The class guide is almost the most Important: “teacher careers failure is not on the didactics. Teacher careers fail as a result of the class leadership.”
bullying is a group problem
bullying is not the research agreement, applies only to the victim and the perpetrator, but is a group problem. Everyone within the group pauses for a role. There are six different. On the negative side, in addition to the victim and the perpetrator – the “wizard” of the offender. The who join, if the main perpetrator has started with the Bully. The term “amplifier” refers to those who watch, laugh and the offender and his assistants in their behavior to encourage.
On the positive side, there are the “defenders”. The shall, within a group, those who stop the other say, they are supposed to, the victim after an attack to comfort or him to suggest the bullying to the teacher. And then there are those who want to have nothing to do with it and turn away or go away, if you are a witness to a harassment – the so-called “Outsiders”.
bind To bullying, and needs to be solved in the process that affects the whole group, also in the group, says Wettstein. “If only the offender is punished, this can often lead to revenge actions of the perpetrators and the victims remain silent and then stronger,” says Wettstein. Experts are investigating as to who takes on bullying what is the role of, and the problems then with the whole class. You will develop class rules against bullying, strengths in all students the social skills and take an active stance against bullying.
in the schools, what the universities teach?
to be able to as a teacher to properly engage, there must be an awareness of when one needs help and where to find them. School social workers, school psychologists, external bullying experts can help – but in particular, a school head, what are the concerns of the teachers as well as bullying issues in General seriously. And since it seems to be lacking, at least according to our research, heavy: While all universities have quickly and thoroughly answered the question as to the bullying issue, not after a whole working week a single of the five requested schools in Basel, Bern, Zürich, St. Gallen and Glarus, to our request answered.
Unfortunately, the best teacher training is of no use if the school remain lines are inactive, refuse help, or the bullying incidents did not take this seriously and nothing less than the life and future mental health of some of its students to risk.