Scientists restored the youth of human cells with proteins that normally turn them into stem. Meanwhile, another research group first received stem cells from donor cells over 110 years, to discover the secrets of longevity.
Turn back time
In the process of embryo development play an important role of specific proteins of Yamanaka factors. What happens if you force a Mature human cell to produce these substances? If you force her to do it for about two weeks, get induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC).
It is very similar to the embryonic. First, IPSC eliminated many of the consequences of cellular aging, which is subjected to the source cell. The establishment of IPSC is literally rejuvenation. Second, it can turn into any cell, tissue or organ, as embryonic. By the way, for the technology to create IPS John Gurdon (John Gurdon) and sinya Yamanaka (Shinya Yamanaka) in 2012 received the Nobel prize.
the fact that the factors of Yamanaka wash chemical markers, applied to DNA. This removes the harmful “junk” that accumulates with age. However, along the way disappear and the markers that indicate the cell who she is in this world: muscular, nervous, or something. So the “experimental” transformed into pluripotent stem cells.
is it Possible to use this method only half, rejuvenate a Mature human cell, but not turning it into stem? This is what was found out by the authors of scientific articles published in the journal Nature Communications.
Biologists have developed a method that allows you to trigger synthesis of proteins necessary for a strictly limited time. In the cell, we introduce a special RNA which plays the role of the team in the production of Yamanaka factors. However, she quickly decomposes, and the synthesis of these substances is terminated.
the Researchers made several types of human cells taken from adult donors, to produce the desired proteins. This effect lasted for several days, not weeks, as you need to create IPSC.
the Experiment showed that the cells do younger and in many ways were indistinguishable from their younger counterparts.
First of all, it’s about the pattern of gene expression. Recall that in human cells not all genes work (are). In particular, the harmful activity of some DNA regions is constrained by regulatory systems, but with the age of the last fail. These insidious genes begin their dirty work. This sad phenomenon is related to many mechanisms of aging.
it Turned out that already after four days of daily sessions of rejuvenation with the help of the Yamanaka factors pattern of gene expression in cells started to “fall back”.
they Then calculated the number of methyl groups (-CH3) to join DNA. With age, they accumulate more and more and it is also one of the factors of aging. On this basis, the treated cells were 1.5-3.5 years younger their peers.
the researchers analyzed several other options. Among them was the ability of cells to assimilate nutrients and cleaning “cellular garbage.” Almost all considered properties are much “younger”.
in addition, biologists were influenced by his “elixir of youth” for cells of human cartilage affected by osteoarthritis. Reduced production of substances associated with inflammation, and improved ability of cells to divide and function.
Finally, the scientists rejuvenated the stem cells of the mouse. They didn’t use “newborn” stem cells and the past several divisions and several had time to age. In addition, it was not the pluripotent cells that can turn into “building blocks” of any fabric, and the precursors of muscle cells.
After the injection of these rejuvenated cells in the muscles of elderly mice, they restored the power inherent in young individuals.
Now, biologists plan to develop the optimal “protein shake” for the rejuvenation of human cells.
Scientists are eager to find out what helps some people to cross the 110-year milestone.Photo Pixabay.
Ask cell longevity, as
Meanwhile, another research group obtained the first IPSC from donor cells over 110 years. This study is described in an article published in the journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.
In the world now lives only 28 people who turned 110 years old. How they managed not to become a victim of the typical diseases of aging such as cardiovascular disease or cancer? Does their body something special or just randomly lucky? Answer no one knows.
In search of clues biologists took cells from 114-year-old woman and received from them the IPSC. The same procedure was subjected cells healthy 43-year-old donor and eight-year-old child suffering from progeria (a disease which causes premature aging). Then, the IPSC was converted into mesenchymal stem cells. The latter can be precursors of cells of bone, adipose and cartilage tissue.
the Objective of the study was to find out whether there are any differences in creating stem cells from samples taken from these donors.
the Experiment showed that almost no difference. Cell 114-year-old donor turned into IPSC as readily as their younger colleagues. However, when we were talking about long-lived, somewhat smaller proportion of the cells received the new telomeres.
Scientists hope that the IPSC obtained from tissues of 114-year-old woman, will be a valuable tool for future studies.
By the way, earlier “Conduct.Science” (nauka.vesti.ru) wrote about ways to slow the aging of cells. We also told how MSU has discovered the “switch aging”.