3 Jul best Soviet Director Anatoly Efros would have turned 95 years old. His talent has left a unique mark in the history of the Russian theatre. Recognized during his lifetime, but dismissed by the authorities and betray artists. Decent, conscientious, humble, making mistakes, sometimes fatal primarily for himself. Not fashionable. Not media. No sacrifice and no altar. A true Russian artist.

a Cabal of hypocrites

It was a ruthless sincerity and avtobiografija performance, although, of course, Olga Yakovleva, godivas Download age daughters, in kinship with him was not unlike Armande Bejart de Moliere, which she played: in Bulgakov’s version, that was not only a wife but a daughter by Moliere.

the Gossip about the relations Anatoly V. and Yakovleva was only a small part of the “servitude of hypocrites” against Efros. The plot, dragging along and branching, pursued Efros life, has not yet spilled over courtesy of the Fatherland and not brought him eventually to the grave. “Gang!” — in the hearts exclaimed Efros rehearsing “the Seagull” and put Chekhov’s passionate, biased and one-sided: from the point of view now, which dies in mortal combat with the mafia Trigorin–Arkadina. Defamed in hundreds of productions as decadent, Treplev for Efros — not only tragic, a hunted hero, but “maybe some Block. Who knows?”

“Moliere”, “the Seagull”, “Three sisters”, “Othello”, “the Misanthrope” — it was a never-ending experience I have to study the mechanics of the plot, the nightmare of intrigue, whose aim is the destruction of man.

Argument with himself

I Remember one evening our conversation, which left me with a heavy feeling: he was to protect what was formerly hated. I understand that the dispute is not with me but rather with the same. But after so many scrapes with the authorities and the mob (in this case, theatrical — from the Russophile critics to the disadvantaged in the distribution of roles of actors), after the loss of the theater, after the prohibition of his plays, after a massive heart attack, the fate I have finally leveled off, and he just recently people sharp extreme, began to seek reconciliation with the reality that his individual coincided with the General, public. Even a “Cup of Tea” he wanted now to put again, otherwise: not so irritable, less egocentric, more objectively, and Treplev to give everyday, not so extraordinary.

It was somewhere in the mid-70s, just after a heart attack, from which he miraculously recovered. Confused by the extremes and gestures and others, and their own still. He told me that he was ready now to agree with his critics.

And persecutors? I asked.

— You can simplify, Volodya.

— is your present-day intolerance to extremes is not in itself extreme?

He laughed, relieving tension:

— This is not extreme, and the passion.

— And before they were not passion?

In response, the quote is:

to live, we must vow to forget

dispatched to give!

It was a time when the world of the Soviet intelligentsia is split on the departing and remaining. “Who will be the last to leave, don’t forget to turn off the light!” — a cock, a desperate Board of the then anecdote, a topical variation on the eternal theme of “after us the deluge.” More altruistic apothegm Yuri Olesha: “long live the world without me!”. But the necessary courage and talent to be resolved. Now from here, across the ocean, I don’t know who was worse — remaining or leaving, which at least could afford big words and Grand gestures. And then our argument started with an article Eugene Rich, father of Irene Rich, my future editor at the publishing house “Zakharov”, which came up for third-stamping “of the Novel with epigraphs” catchy commercial name of “Three Jews”. This article was printed in two issues of the “Literary” about how Schoolgirls beat up his girlfriend.

he pretended that the article did not read, forced me to retell it. He often used this technique in rehearsals, but I’m not an actor, and in his company was not involved. I told — biased with their comments. Efros, specifying the subjectivity of their objections and factoring in the mob, which he was as disgusting, as I said, however, that the victim could be dishonest, reviled, spying, Snitch and did not fit, was inadequate. I recalled the netting gossip around the “inadequate” dark and Moliere’s Alceste — also because he cursed, worse than girls, sometimes without much need.

— And who told you that both of you, with your insufferable bile, were right? — said the guard.

How to Evening was hard, it was possible to judge by the General drift of the sentence:

— harder to Stay here than to leave. And to live and to work, you need great courage.

Mark of fate

he chose “to stay.” I say this not as a merit, but of the five leading Soviet filmmakers, he was heavier than the other. Other circumstances were added that unlike Lyubimova or Ephraim, he was lucky to be born a Jew: purebred, typical, distinct, small-town. The fact of the biography, which under certain circumstances becomes a mark of destiny. When we come closer, I’ve heard a lot of stories on this story from all the members of his family. Natasha Krymova told about the experiences of her mom, of average size party ladies, when she met her future son-in-law:

— Well, Efros, but that was so similar!..

Wehow do I know bag only once, and then only in passing, touched on this theme in his work, but rose to a tragic, Shekspira-shelokovsky the height that many of us who knew him personally, for the first time, it became clear how painful it was perceived. Fried, this side, almost steffany the character of Gogol’s “Marriage” staged by Efros moved to the front, flush with the main characters. Talking about the play on Malaya Bronnaya, where he worked for another Director for 17 years and regretted that went to the Taganka.

This is all in the aesthetic and in the moral principles of the Efros — there was no incidental, consequential, marginal roles, experiences all forgotten firs no less important than the experience Ranevskaya, the extras, the chorus, the Greek chorus, he did not recognize. That’s why so much missed the famous actor who resentfully refused the role offered to him the option due to its complete insignificance.

And what made her tip Efros another famous actor Leonid Bronevoy, by accepting the role? In the tragedy that started from birth and continues until death, because, as the mark of Cain, on top of personal qualities, rests on this man of the curse — his name: Eggs.

Comedy turned into a tragedy

Originally Efros wanted to put “Marriage” as a Comedy: come to the hospital after a heart attack and the thought of a fun play on a totally incredible event, as Podkolesin decided to marry, but at the last moment changed his mind and jumped out the window. Brought him to the hospital but he opened it and began to read:

“Here’s how to start one at leisure to think, so I see that finally need to get married. What really? Live, live, this finally becomes disgusting”.

Above the word “disgusting” – he thought for a long time.

Already with a performance, he, as if apologizing, referred to the Gogol: that is a little longer to get accustomed to the Comedy, as it can easily turn into a tragedy. And whether the know how Russian writers to write clean Comedy?

the Scene is divided into two parts, and each part framed.

In the same — colored sofas, puhovichki, cages with parrots and Agafya in the center: rich, exotic, dreamy and defenseless girl who so want to escape from his wretchedness merchant of cattle and steep loneliness and to marry a man, a nobleman, we are surprised. “Because you have your wedding dress ready, I know,” says the matchmaker of Kochkarev, and with what readiness, with what agony and passion, she says:

well, ready to go!

Olga Yakovleva played her character, as if picking up with each episode of the tragic force. She was prosowski Galatea, not in the sense that he fell in love with��governmental creation, not only that, but the fact that he created her, she was obedient, pliable material. My companion at this performance, and companion in life Elena Klepikova — most impressed that the Director-the man knows what, in her opinion, known only to women.

However, about men Download also something that was known.

In the neighboring frame stood ready black carriage — and nothing more.

the choice.

a house or a camp?

Domesticity or Stalinist?

the Slavery of the family, the Fatherland or the loneliness of freedom?

“Marriage” was staged in the midst of departures, and this was the response I have to a painful question — to leave or to stay? And the answer was as complicated as the question: Efros chose “to stay”, and its hero at the last moment will take a black coach.

still I lived between the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, or as they say here, between the rock and the hard place. Between family and Yakovleva, between the authorities and the actors, between the theatre and shadow too, which he sent to Moscow in order to weave intrigue and blackmail of the opponent, and he has traveled around the world and staged performances in Europe, Israel, America.

Who knows.

he rehearsed his death in many plays, and died suddenly, unprepared, as they say, in the post — almost like it’s Moliere: a few days after prorabotano meeting in the Theatre on Taganka. He was 61 years old. His parents died an old man just a year earlier. This is to ensure that it was based on the genetic code for longevity. Something in his death was sinister and vile, something disgusting, as if the plot caught up with him eventually and killed.