This week is celebrated in words and language on the Ordfestivalen at the University of Oslo.

Where has language researchers, among other things, selected each his word that has particularly nice, weird or interesting meanings. Here are some of them!

Amerikanorsk: bustling

on FOOT: Here we see people “busy” in a street in Iowa, during a visit of the Norwegian royal couple.

Photo: Lise Åserud / NTB scanpix Importance : to go on foot

Amerikanorsk is the language that is handed down through generations after the first migrants to America.

It is spoken as a minority language, in addition to the majority language is English and is referred to as a nedarvingsspråk (heritage language). The main area for this language today is the Midwest in the united STATES, but also Nordvesten in the united STATES and in Canada.

the Verb bustling corresponds to the europanorske the verb go, and has the meaning to go on foot, not meaning to travel. The word is documented in amerikanorsk completely from the 1850’s.

An example of use in an oral sentence is: “sometimes, you used to go to school and you had busy in a snow storm” (Gary, Minnesota)

Those who speak amerikanorsk, live typical in the countryside. Today is the language dying. The speakers are old, and they have not handed over the language to the next generation.

Selected out of : Janne Bondi Johannessen, Yvonne van Baal and David Natvig, Department of linguistics and nordic studies

Dutch: gezellig

TYPICAL GEZELLIG: One may have it gezellig together both outdoor and indoor.

Photo: Margriet Faber / AP Importance : nice, cosy

Gezellig goes right into the core of the Dutch culture. The Dutch will argue that the word is not possible to translate into other languages. But it is fairly close to nice or cozy in English.

We recognize the word from the company, which originally means collection of comrades.

Gezellig is also erkenederlandsk because it illustrates the distinctive Dutch harkelyden. In Dutch is pronounced both g and ch as in German ach.

you Should pronounce gezellig? Remember when the both to start and to end the word with halsgurgling.

Selected out of : Ronny Spaans, Department of literature, area studies and european languages

Japanese: haha ⺟ はは

MOTHER: If you see a mama or a papa, depends on what language you speak!

Photo: Nasjonalmuséet in Tokyo, the Importance : the mother

In the oldest known form of japanese was h pronounced as p. The word for mama – haha – was papa.

In Europe we have many words for mother that are similar in many languages, mère (French), mother (English), madre (Spanish). But this is not so in global perspective:

Researchers who have investigated word that denotes the members in 1000 languages, from 14 språkfamilier, found papa in about 700 of them. In almost a third of the languages that use the papa, means the mother, or another female family member(!)

Equally fascinating is the word for father in japanese, chichi, also have the meanings breast and breast milk. Work on it, you!

Selected by: Marcus Jacobus Teeuwen, Department of culture studies and oriental languages

Danish: grinebider

GOOD MOOD: A young grinebiter – in Danish meaning!

Photo: Lise Åserud / NTB scanpix Importance : one who laughs a lot,

Danish and Norwegian bokmål are really the same language. They are both easy to read for the danes and norwegians. (The pronunciation is a whole different story!)

But! Some words are so-called fake friends, and then it may occur serious misunderstandings.

Grinebiter is such a false friend.

In “Ordbog over the Danish Language” written there: “Grin, Grineri: aabne munden, view tænder or do grimasser, skære ansigt.”

This grimasen with open mouth has so separated the layers of meaning, so that the grin means smile in Danish, but crying on English.

A Norwegian grinebiter is thus a person who complain the least. In Danish, however, is a grinebider a person who usually or often laughs.

Selected out of : Given the law of Moses, Institute for linguistic and nordic studies

Äiwoo: momalâ

LYSEBLØNN: the Reefs creates a dramatic fargeforskjell due and in the depths.

Photo: Sophie Lautier / AFP Importance : light blue, light green – lyseblønn

It is not uncommon that languages use the same word for the colors blue and green. Some languages have only two fargeord; one for light or white and one for dark or black. If a language has three fargeord, the third is always red.

First, when a language has six fargeord separates the typical blue from green.

Äiwoo is an oceanic language spoken on a group of tiny islands in the Pacific ocean, surrounded by coral reefs. Inside the reef the water is shallow, while the where the reef ends, the water brådypt.

It is especially for äiwoo, is that the word momalâ specifically used about the bright blue/greens. For the dark blue/greens used a different word, mou.

thus, It is a language that doesn’t care to distinguish blue from green, but at the same time think it is so important to distinguish between the light and dark versions of these colors, that it has entirely separate words for it.

Selected out of : Åse Næss, Institute for linguistic and nordic studies

Chinese: zhīyīn

WORDLESS COMMUNICATION: Here we see harpespilleren Yu Boya express their sound.

Photo: shizhao / Wikipedia Importance : know/understand the sound, the [one who] understand [my] sound

Zhīyīn has a poetic origin; it stems from an old chinese story about a harper of high generation that practiced out in the woods. A simple carpenter who often walked past, saw always immediately what harpespilleren expressed through their music.

So much communication between people is non-verbal. When you truly know someone, one can recognize the inner life by listening to the timbre of the voice.

you can understand by just hearing the sound of them, without the need to use words, must be a really close friend.

On the chinese today use one like this the word how the English would have called some “soulmate”.

Selected out of : Øystein Krogh Visted, Department of culture studies and oriental languages

Turkish: arkadaş

FRIENDSHIP: It can hide both the boys and girls behind the Turkish word for friend.

Photo: Stringer / Reuters Pronunciation : [aɾkʰadaʃ] Importance : friend, girl friend,

From arka which means the back and daş, which means the one who supports or protects his back to the others. Originally was you about a warrior who protects his back to another.

Turkish does not have grammatical gender. It will say that the Turkish categorizes not nouns as male, female, or neuter.

Therefore, arkadaş be both a friend and a girlfriend.

Selected out of : Emel Türker-Van der Heiden, Department of culture studies and oriental languages

NB: the Texts in the article are based on the presentations of words and language from language researchers at the University of Oslo to Ordfestivalen

Interested in more words? Studio 2 presents two words each day this week.